Russkaya Rech’

Russkaya Rech’ is a scientific journal published by the Russian Academy of Sciences. It has been published since 1967.

Founders - Russian Academy of Sciences, V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkin State Russian Language Institute.

The journal has 6 issues per year.

The journal is included in the Higher Attestation Commission List of peer-reviewed scientific publications.

The academic journal Russkaya Rech’ (Russian Speech) publishes the results of scientific research in Philology (Russian language, Russian literature).
The journal also publishes discussions, conference reviews, critical essays, and book reviews.

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No 3 (2023)

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On the Principles of Compiling Normative Dictionaries of Standard
Savinov D.M.
The article discusses the basic principles of forming a glossary for orthological dictionaries, to which include spelling, orthoepic, grammatical dictionaries, as well as stress dictionaries and dictionaries of pronunciation difficulties. On the one hand, the glossary of such lexicographic sources should contain the maximum number of words that need an appropriate comment, on the other hand, a normative dictionary can include only those words that have received a status of a literary norm. There has been a tendency to include colloquial and jargon vocabulary in normative dictionaries in Russian lexicography. As a result, there has been formed an opinion about the normative use of these words in the standard language. However, this is completely unacceptable: since colloquial and slang vocabulary cannot be the object of codification from the point of view of the standard language. The article also discusses the issue of codification in orthoepic dictionaries of territorially determined variants characterizing the regional varieties of the Russian standard language.
Russkaya Rech’. 2023;(3):7-20
pages 7-20 views
A Forgotten Idiom with the Meaning of Measure and Degree
Akhapkina Y.E.
Widely understood semantics of quantity includes the meaning of measure and degree, from the maximal intensity of a feature, the meaning of 'very', to its complete absence, the meaning of 'not at all'. In Russian speech, the prepositional-dative combination po + dative case in one of its uses turns into a sample, a prototype formula. For instance, the reproducible combinations po chesti – by honour, po sovesti – by conscience and po pravde – by truth reflect the meaning 'correctly, properly', recorded, in particular, in the Small Academic Dictionary. The Russian National Corpus shows that by the end of the twentieth century a similar usage was formed in the combination po umu – by mind. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the sema 'sample' in combination with the sema 'maximal manifestation' or 'total absence of a sign (action)' was observed in the expression that has gone out of use today: ni po bulatu – (nor) by bulat. The internal form of the combination refers to Damascus steel as a model of strength, durability, resilience and sharpness. In the examples from the texts of A. O. Ablesimov, I. M. Dolgorukov, A. A. Shakhovsky and G. F. Kvitka-Osnovyanenko ni po bulatu – (nor) by bulat means, apparently, 'not at all, not in the slightest'. In M. N. Zagoskin, the formula byt’ chestnym po bulatu – to be fair by the bulat comes close to the meaning 'in the highest degree’.
Russkaya Rech’. 2023;(3):21-39
pages 21-39 views
Muzhnyaa Zhena and Divo Divnoe: From the History of Pleonastic Combinations in Russian Language
Generalova E.V.
The problematics of the article lies in the field of studying the linguistic phenomena of pleonasm and tautology in diachronic aspect. The unified interpretation of these notions is absent in the modern linguistic tradition. The study of linguistic redundancy is effective on the basis of the non-standardized lexical semantic system of the language of the pre-national period. The article deals with stable combinations that reveal semantic duplication in the semantic relations of their components in the Russian language of the 16th-17th centuries. In the texts of this period various types of pleonastic constructions can be distinguished: 1) tautological phraseological units consisting of single-root words; 2) proper pleonastic combinations with a semantically redundant component; 3) dissected-descriptive constructions that have a one-word synonym of the same root, including expressions with broad-valued nouns; 4) conditionally synonymous constructions, including homogeneous components that are close in meaning. The article describes the features of the structure, semantics, functioning of various pleonastic stable combinations, as well as their further fate in Russian language. Some, used with amplifying semantics as etiquette formulas, remained markers of the business language of the 16th-17th centuries, others are known in texts of different epochs, acting as a sign that the context belongs to the folklore or stylization, the third ones are actively used as phraseological units in modern language.
Russkaya Rech’. 2023;(3):40-54
pages 40-54 views
Jester Names: Lubok Characters Farnos, Gonos and Yeralash
Pletneva A.A.
Some lubok prints (cheap popular prints) of an entertaining nature feature characters with strange names. These names are neither variations based on Christian names, nor nicknames with a clear internal form. This article discusses a possible origin of the names Farnos, Gonos and Yeralash, their functioning in lubok prints and other texts. The name of the jester Farnos (Rus. Фарнос) is associated with the name of the commedia dell'arte character Gian Farina. The latter was known in Russia, in particular, thanks to the etchings by Jacques Callot. The widespread use of lubok prints with the image of Farnos led to this name becoming an appellative. The word фарнос /farnos/ is defined in the dictionary by Vladimir Dal as ‘an arrogant person, a proudling’. Another jester, Gonos (Rus. Гонос), probably does not have a foreign prototype. His name correlates with the words гоносúться /gono`sit’sya/ (‘to boast, to show arrogance, to flaunt’) and гонóсный /go`nosnyj/ (‘proud, haughty’) presented in the Dictionary of Russian Folk Dialects. The name Yeralash (Rus. Ералаш) originates from the identical appellative. This word of Turkic origin was recorded in the 18th century and means ‘mess, nonsense’. In all the texts involving these buffoon characters, the functioning of the name is determined by a rhyme. Farnos and Gonos rhyme with the word нос /nos/ (‘nose’), the name Yeralash rhymes with the word наш /nash/ (‘our, ‘ours’). Phonetic consonance and false etymologization provide extensive material for language game and jokes.
Russkaya Rech’. 2023;(3):55-67
pages 55-67 views
Rukoprikladstvo (‘Manhandling’): from ‘Handwritten Signature’ to ‘Beating’
Sadova T.S., Rudnev D.V.
The article discusses the history of the semantic transformation of the compound word rukoprikladstvo (‘manhandling’) – from the meaning ‘handwritten signature’ in the business language of Medieval Russia to the meaning ‘beating’ in the modern common Russian language. The word rukoprikladstvo, derived from the stable combination ruku prilozhit (‘set one's hand to’), denoted the symbolic confirmation of an official text by placing a palm, previously smeared with ink, on a blank sheet, the reverse side of the document. The article stresses that the medieval idea of a Russian person about the state as a ‘house’ headed by a ‘father-sovereign’ left a peculiar imprint on the office work of pre-Petrine Russia. Thus, the reliability of the content of a business text was ensured, on the one hand, by the testimony of the closest relatives or respected people of the clan (‘poslukhi’) and on the other hand by the unwritten laws of Christian morality. Since the time of Peter the Great, who was oriented towards Western models of the ‘state machine’, many official formulas have forever moved into the national language, acquiring new meanings motivated by the original semantics of their lexical components. Without a historical digression into the ‘ritual’ features of this obligatory action when sealing a business transaction and, as a result, without considering the functioning of the combination ruku prilozhit' (’put a hand’) in the official writing of pre-Petrine and post-Petrine Russia, it is impossible to trace the meaningful evolution of the word ‘rukoprikladstvo’ to its modern meaning ‘inflict hand beatings’. The history of the expression ruku prilozhit' (‘set one's hand to’) and the word rukoprikladstvo – both in the command language and in common Russian life – testifies to the history of the Russian official language as a separate cultural phenomenon with its own unique destiny.
Russkaya Rech’. 2023;(3):68-79
pages 68-79 views
Father and His Family (Genre Originality of L. Petrushevskaya’s Story “The New Robinsons”, 1989)
Lekmanov O.A.
The article deals with the genre originality of Lyudmila Petrushevskaya's story ‘The New Robinsons’. The story, first published in 1989, masquerades as a Robinsonade, a dystopia, and a sample of village prose (with its admiration for the peasants and peasant women of pre-revolutionary times), but the true goal of Petrushevskaya is much more ambitious: the story is an invariant of the biblical story about the rebirth of humankind after a global catas-trophe. The very title of the story directly indicates the genre of robinsonade. One can easily single out elements of dystopia in the story with the help of text analysis, as well as inter-textual references to the prose of village writers (mainly, Alexander Solzhenitsyn and Val-entin Rasputin). The key phrase of the story ‘The New Robinsons’ refers to biblical sources: ‘There was a boy and a girl for the continuation of the human race.’ In this light, it becomes clear why Petrushevskaya, seemingly casually, reports that the narrator’s father once in-jured ‘in the thigh’ and remained forever lame. It is a reference to Jacob, who was once in-jured ‘in the thigh’ when he fought with God. He, just like the narrator’s father, spent most of his life on the run, and was the one, from whom the twelve tribes of the Jewish people eventually originated.
Russkaya Rech’. 2023;(3):80-86
pages 80-86 views
Quoting as a Reflection Technique in K. D. Vorobyov's Novella “Here Comes the Giant…”
Mar'ina O.V., .
The article analyzes full and transformed quotations, which act as a means of reflecting on the subject of a speaker, indicate his state depending on the situation and interaction with communication partners. When reproducing the original texts in K. Vorobyov's story “Here comes the giant ...”, the following parameters are taken into account: the situation (prepared / unprepared), the state of the speaking subject – the narrator (permanent / temporary / spontaneous; emotional / unemotional), speech environment (official / unofficial). It is established that the analyzed text contains a wide range of quotations, where allusions and reminiscences predominate. So, appearing in the speech of the hero-narrator, they convey his attitude towards others, situations in general and describe his state. It is noted that there are several authors (L. Andreev, A. Blok, S. Yesenin, E. Hemingway) and source texts (“The ingenious hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha”, etc.), which cause a ‘special disposition’ of the speaker's subject - their use due to his attitude and understanding of himself in the world. At the same time, the creative nature of the hero – the writer – does not allow him to stop, he is in constant search of himself, future plots and changes his “masks”, which causes the appearance of various citation inclusions.
Russkaya Rech’. 2023;(3):87-101
pages 87-101 views
“They Don’t Choose the Times...”: an Essay on the Alexander Kushner’s Doxa and Paradoxes (Idiomatics and Ideology)
Uspenskij P.F.
The article is focused on the Alexander Kushner’s poem “They don’t Choose the Times...”. We analyze the whole text and its first lines “They don't choose the times, / They live and die in them”, which have been fixed in the Russian proverbial and quotation fund. Based on the linguistic analysis of the text, in particular, on the idiomatic approach, I attempt to deconstruct the poem. As it is shown, the key maxim oscillates between universal and situational meaning. The text of the poem realizes a rhetorical system of arguments to accept modernity and turns the paradoxical maxim into a rhetorical argument. The final stanza deserves special attention. The phrase from the criminal procedural discourse “to take fingerprints” plays the main role in it. The use of this figure of speech betrays the subject’s specific understanding of history and modernity. The system of text arguments appears to be disordered and contradictory. In my opinion, it can be explained by the traumatic nature of the Stalin’s era. The subject convinces to accept modernity not an imaginary interlocutor (a reader) as of himself, because he feels the danger of political persecution for having different views. The linguistic analysis of the poem “They don't Choose the Times... ” allows us to attribute this text to the official Soviet poetry only judging by immanent features.
Russkaya Rech’. 2023;(3):102-116
pages 102-116 views
Transmutation as a Tool of Dramatic Text Interpretation
Chureyeva O.A.
This paper studies the impact of transcoding on the text interpretation. The study, based on the text material of Chekhov’s play “The Seagull”, offers reflections on challenges of transmutation process. The paper analyzes the interaction between verbal and non-verbal signs as codes of different nature. It is pointed out, that modes of code switching could fit into several focal algorithms of transformation: a substitution (a verbal sign replaces with non-verbal one), accompanying (a verbal sign is accompanied by a non-verbal one), addition (a verbal sign is supplemented by a non-verbal one). The research shows that a various theatrical signs (acoustic, visual, olfactory, kinetic, proxemic, involving light or color, etc.) actualize, clarify, enhance or neutralize the meaning of verbal utterances. They can be embedded in the theatrical text structure simultaneously or sequentially. The study is also concerned with the problem of translatability of signs. The article suggests that an adequate translation, which has the same effect on the recipient as the original text, provides a potential opportunity for the reverse translation of non-verbal signs into verbal ones, since the transcoding process is reversible. It is emphasized that transmutation allows us to interpret the text of a dramatic work, taking into account not only linguistic, but also extralinguistic reality. The author sets out to prove that the adequate intersemiotic translation can be obtained in case the functional sign equivalence is maintained.
Russkaya Rech’. 2023;(3):117-127
pages 117-127 views

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