Fiziologiâ rastenij

The Russian Journal of Plant Physiology is the most popular journal on plant physiology published in the former Soviet Union. The journal covers all sections of modern plant physiology, as well as related aspects of Biophysics, biochemistry, Cytology, anatomy, genetics, molecular biology, plant genetic engineering, etc. The journal publishes experimental articles, reviews, and descriptions of new research methods. Some issues of the journal are special issues that cover current problems of plant physiology and contain new information about its rapidly developing areas. The editorial Board accepts manuscripts in Russian or English for publication. The journal is of interest to universities, research institutes, libraries, researchers and postgraduates as a reliable periodic source of information.

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Vol 70, No 3 (2023)

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Secondary metabolism in Taxus spp. plant cell culture in vitro
Tomilova S.V., Globa E.B., Demidova E.V., Nosov A.M.

The genus Taxus (yew) is a source of a number of high-value medicinal substances, particularly, paclitaxel (taxol)—a complex diterpenoid compound with a powerful antitumor action (trade name of Taxol®). Paclitaxel is one of the most efficient drugs in chemotherapy owing to its specific ability to suppress proliferation of tumor cells via stabilization of their microtubules. The world-wide demand for taxol is 800–1000 kg a year and these figures annually rise by 20%. The growing need for paclitaxel and its derivatives and the shortage of plant resources necessary for their production made compounds of the taxane group one of the most important objects for development of biotechnological methods of their production. Out of all the possible ways of taxol production (isolation from wild or plantation trees, total chemical synthesis or semisynthesis, use of yew cell cultures, techniques of metabolic engineering, and use of yew endophytic fungi), the most promising is industrial cultivation of Taxus spp. cell cultures. This review examines the papers dealing with investigation of secondary metabolism in dedifferentiated cells in vitro of various yew species and feasibility of industrial use of cell cultures for production of taxoids. We revealed a number of specificity of Taxus spp. Cell cultures: (1) from a cytophysiological aspect—difficult initiation of cell cultures, their low growth characteristics, specific media and culturing conditions; (2) from a phytochemical aspect—distinction from intact plants in qualitative composition and content of secondary metabolites accounted for by specificity of cell culture as a biological system; predominant formation of С14-hydroxylated rather than of С13-hydroxylated taxoids; an opportunity for elevation of the content of taxoids—including commercially valuable ones (paclitaxel and baccatin III) with the aid of different tools (elicitation, stress exposures, two-phase cultivation and some others); (3) from a biotechnological aspect—possibility of industrial cultivation of yew cell cultures; existence of several successful industries (Germany and the Republic of Korea).

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):227-240
pages 227-240 views


Coexpression of Structural and Regulatory Genes of the Flavonoid Pathway Reveals the Characteristics of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Eggplant Organs (Solanum melongena L.)
Filyushin M.A., Shchennikova A.V., Kochieva E.Z.

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an economically important vegetable crop whose purple-colored fruits are enriched with anthocyanidins. In this work in the eggplant genome, homologues of the main known structural (CHS1, CHS2, CHI, F3H, F3´5´H, DFR, ANS, and UFGT) and regulatory (TT8, GL3, bHLH137, bHLH143, MYB1, MYB2, and MYB75) anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, as well as anthocyanidin transporter gene (GSTF12), were identified. The expression of these genes was characterized in comparison
with the content of the total anthocyanins and the color of the leaf, flower petals, and fruit peel. It was shown that the gene expression pattern corresponds to the color and the presence of anthocyanins in the tissue, and also indicates the presence of organ-specific characteristics of the regulation of transcription of genes encoding transcription factors of the MBW complex. The results of correlation analysis confirm the involvement of SmbHLH137, SmTT8, SmMYB2, and SmMYB75 genes in the regulation of the expression of structural genes in flower petals and SmGL3, SmTT8, and SmMYB1 in fruit peel.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):241-250
pages 241-250 views
Influence of Presowing Treatment of Seeds with Salicylic Acid on Growth and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Barley with Different Zinc Contents in Substrate
Ignatenko A.A., Batova Y.V., Kholoptseva E.S., Kaznina N.M.

Under the conditions of a growing experiment, the authors studied the effect of presowing treatment of seeds with salicylic acid (SA) on the growth parameters and photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L.), which are in optimal conditions of mineral nutrition or with a lack of zinc in the root environment. It has been shown that zinc deficiency does not adversely affect PSA but causes inhibition of plant growth. Presowing treatment of seeds with SA (10 μM) had a stimulating effect on the intensity of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, which ensured successful plant growth under conditions of zinc deficiency. At the same time, in plants grown from seeds treated with SA, the content of zinc in the roots and shoots was higher than in plants whose seeds were not treated. Based on the obtained results, a conclusion was made on the possibility and prospects of using presowing seed treatment with SA for growing barley plants under conditions of zinc deficiency in the root environment.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):251-258
pages 251-258 views
Improving Salt Stress Tolerance of Plants with Endophytic Strains of Bacillus subtilis
Kuramshina Z.M., Khairullin R.M.

Effects of drought on plants of Triticum aestivum L., Brоmopsis inеrmis L., Pisum sativum L., and Zea mays L. inoculated with endophytic strains of Bacillus subtilis bacteria were studied. Presowing treatment of seeds with these bacteria was found to boost plant resistance to water deficit, stimulate their growth, and suppress oxidative stress. Based on the ability of the tested strains to cause antistress effect and activate the antioxidant system, it is concluded that plant treatments with them may favor growing of agricultural crops under drought conditions.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):259-268
pages 259-268 views
Characteristics of a New Halotolerant Arctic Strain of Carotenogenic Microalga Halochlorella rubescens NAMSU SBB-20
Zaitseva A.A., Bakhareva D.A., Zaitsev P.A., Lobakova E.S.

Green microalgae capable of accumulating secondary carotenoids are the most important objects of biotechnology, and the search for new strains with unique properties, in particular, those adapted to growth at low temperatures and high salinity in the environment, is an urgent task. The NAMSU SBB-20 microalga strain was isolated from an algal-bacterial biofilm found on the coast of the White Sea in the littoral zone of the Solovetsky Archipelago. Identification of the strain showed its belonging to the species Halochlorella rubescens P.J.L.Dangeard. The species H. rubescens was first described for the White Sea. Under conditions of high light intensity, ultrastructural changes in cells are shown, among which destruction of the photosynthetic apparatus and the formation of cytoplasmic and chloroplast lipid inclusions are noted. It was shown that the culture of the NAMSU SBB-20 strain is capable of acquiring an orange color under unfavorable growth conditions. An assessment was made of the effect of the composition of the medium and the intensity of illumination on the pigment composition of the algae. The highest absolute values of the accumulation of carotenoids were noted during cultivation in light with an intensity of 150 μmol PAR quanta/m2/s on BG-11 media containing no source of phosphorus (15.66 ± 0.18 mg/L) or nitrogen (15.95 ± 0.56 mg/L). The described strain has a biotechnological potential due to the initial halotolerance and the accumulation of high values of secondary carotenoids in the biomass.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):269-278
pages 269-278 views
The Role of SnRK1 Kinase in the Response of the Photosynthetic Machinery to Salinity Stress
Murtuzova A.V., Tyutereva E.V., Voitsekhovskaja O.V.

In plants, SnRK1 (Sucrose non-fermenting-Related protein Kinase 1) is one of the major activators of catabolic processes, including autophagy, during stress responses. SnRK1 generally acts as a sensor of the energy status of the cell. Photosynthesis is by far the largest energy-supplying process in green plant cells exposed to light; thus, SnRK1 might participate in its regulation. In leaves of Arabidopsis lines with different levels of the catalytic subunit of SnRK1, KIN10, quantum yields of photosystems and of non-photochemical quenching, formation of the transthylakoid proton motive force, and contents of ATP in seedlings were compared under optimal conditions and under salinity stress. We detected specific changes in the photochemical activity of the chloroplasts that were assigned to constant activation of SnRK1 in two lines with constitutive overexpression of KIN10, both under control conditions and under salinity stress. Furthermore, the inhibition of the SnRK1 activity by means of RNA interference in Arabidopsis led to a lack of response to salinity at the level of chloroplast photochemistry.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):279-292
pages 279-292 views
Improving Salt Stress Tolerance of Triticum aestivum L. with Endophytic Strains of Bacillus subtilis
Kuramshina Z.M., Khairullin R.M.

The effect of salt stress on Triticum aestivum L. plants inoculated with endophytic strains of B. subtilis was studied. The treatment of Triticum aestivum L. with endophytic bacterial strains of B. subtilis was shown to increase plant resistance to the stress factor. The inoculation reduced the development of oxidative stress and the entry of sodium ions into aboveground plant organs. The antistress effect of endophytic strains of B. subtilis and their ability to reduce the absorption of sodium ions by Triticum aestivum L. plants can be employed to promote plant growth during cultivation of crops on saline lands.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):293-300
pages 293-300 views
The effect of low temperature and nitrogen starvation on the morphological and physiological characteristics of two strains of green microalgae of the genus Lobosphaera sp.
Shibzukhova K.A., Chivkunova O.B., Lobakova E.S.

The effect of nitrogen starvation and, for the first time, low temperature, as well as their simultaneouseffect, on the physiology and ultrastructure of cells of microalgae of the genus Lobosphaera (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae) was studied. Nitrogen deficiency in both strains led to a decrease in the content ofchlorophyll by three times and an increase in the proportion of carotenoids by two times. A decrease in thecontent of both chlorophyll and carotenoids was observed at +10°C. The simultaneous effect of two factorsresulted in a threefold decrease in the chlorophyll content in NAMSU 924/2 and a sixfold decrease inNAMSU (CALU) 1497; the proportion of carotenoids in both strains decreased by 1.5–2 times. Data onultrastructural changes in cells of microalgae of the genus Lobosphaera under the influence of stress factorshave been obtained. A similar nature of the response in both strains to stress conditions was noted. Nitrogendeficiency led to the accumulation of numerous lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of cells along the cell wall. Long-term incubation on a nitrogen-free medium led to the filling of the entire volume of cells with lipiddroplets, disassembly of the membrane system of chloroplasts, that reduction in sizeand being locatedbetween densely lying lipid droplets. At low temperatures, the number of thylakoids decreased, while theinterthylakoid space and the size of chloroplasts increased. With simultaneous exposure to nitrogen starvation and low temperature, numerous lipid droplets accumulated, the number of thylakoids decreased, the interthylakoid space and the size of the chloroplast increased, which was noted under separate exposure to stress factors. The pyrenoid in both strains did not undergo significant changes in all cases.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):301-310
pages 301-310 views
Effect of Photoperiod Duration on Efficiency of Low-Temperature Hardening of Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh. (L.)
Popov V.N., Deryabin A.N.

The effect of photoperiod duration on efficiency of low-temperature hardening was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants, ecotype Col-0. Six-week-old plants were exposed to cold acclimation at a temperature of 2°С during 1‒5 days at photoperiods of 0, 8, and 16 h (illuminance of 200 µmol/(m2 s)). According to survival data and leakage of electrolytes after test freezing (–6°C, 24 h), the plants exposed to cold acclimation in the dark did not show frost resistance. The plants hardened in the light (irrespective of the length of photoperiod) considerably improved their frost resistance by the end of the cold-acclimation period. Net photosynthesis/dark respiration ratio in these plants was almost two times greater than in control material (without hardening). The plants exposed to a 16-h-long photoperiod surpassed the type of treatment with 8-h-long illumination both in the highest levels of accumulation of sugars (by almost 40%) and in the rate of reaching these levels in daily dynamics of hardening. It was shown that MDA content transiently rose during the first 24 h of hardening in the light and did not change in the dark, which may point to a signal role of lipid peroxidation products upon cold acclimation. It was discovered that the photoperiod duration affected the formation rate of frost resistance in A. thaliana plants. A more prolonged operation of A. thaliana’s photosynthetic apparatus at 16-h-long photoperiod considerably accelerated the accumulation of sugars upon cold acclimation and, therefore, hastened development of frost resistance as compared with an 8-h-long photoperiod. It was concluded that rapid formation of frost resistance in A. thaliana requires a combination of low above-zero temperature and 16-h-long photoperiod.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):311-318
pages 311-318 views
Early Blight Resistance of Transgenic Potato Plants Expressingthe ProSmAMP1 Gene for Antimicrobial Peptides under the Control of a Light-Inducible Cab Promoter
Beliaev D.V., Yourieva N.O., Tereshonok D.V., Derevyagina M.K., Meleshin A.A.

The genome of Stellaria media contains a gene family for hevein-like antimicrobial peptides, some of which are known to encode two peptides released from the translation product as a result of post-translational proteolysis. These peptides have been shown to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi, including potato pathogens Alternaria solani and Alternaria alternata. One of these genes, ProSmAMP1, was introduced into the potato genome under the control of the light-inducible promoter of Cab gene from common wheat. The resulting transgenic lines expressed ProSmAMP1 mRNA during several vegetative passages, and their resistance to early blight was assessed by several indicators of detached leaf infection, with plants having the highest expression of the transgene also showing the highest resistance.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):319-326
pages 319-326 views
Characteristics of the complex of polyphenol compounds of Yakutian endemic Dracocephalum jacutense Peschkova using tandem mass spectrometry
Okhlopkova Z.M., Razgonova M.P., Egorova P.S., Golokhvast K.S.

Dracocephalum jacutense Peschkova is a rare and endangered species of the genus Dracocephalum L. of Lamiaceae family. The species was first described in 1997 and listed in the Red Data Book of Yakutia (2017). Until now, due to the rare occurrence of D. jacutense, almost none of its phytochemical studies have been carried out and there is no information on the content of biologically active compounds (secondary metabolites) of the plant. In this work, using the method of tandem mass spectrometry, a complex of polyphenolic compounds was studied in the inflorescences of the Dracocephalum jacutense, collected in the areas of its first discovery - the Kobyaysky district of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). As a result of the analysis, 48 polyphenolic compounds were found in the alcohol extracts of Dracocephalum jacutense inflorescences, among which 17 flavones, 7 flavonols, 3 flavan-3-ols, 12 phenolic acids, 1 lignan, 2 coumarins, 6 anthocyanidins were identified. It should be noted that more than half (30 compounds) of all the identified polyphenols for representatives of the genus Dracocephalum L. were discovered for the first time. The results obtained state the unique composition of polyphenolic compounds in the inflorescences of D. jacutense Peschkova. In order to preserve this sparse local endemic of Eastern Siberia, work has begun on the development of an effective method for its micropropagation in vitro.

Fiziologiâ rastenij. 2023;70(3):327-336
pages 327-336 views

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