Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ

The journal Izvestiya RAN (Akad. Nauk SSSR). Seriya Geograficheskaya has been published since 1951 (No. 1 was for March–April 1951). All these years it has kept the position of the country's leading academic journal on basic problems of geography. This journal (and its predecessor Izvestiya Akad. Nauk SSSR. Seriya Geograficheskaya i Geofizicheskaya) has traditionally been headed by leaders of domestic geography (Academicians A.A. Grigor'ev, L.S. Berg, N.N. Baranskiy, I.P. Gerasimov, and V.M. Kotlyakov); leading geographers of the country have been members of its editorial board.

Izvestiya RAN. Seriya Geograficheskaya publishes scientific articles and reviews on topical problems of physical, socioeconomic, and political geography and ecological–geographical issues of nature management and environmental protection. The journal reflects the activity of RAS institutes and other research establishments that work in the field of geography and environmental protection, the Russian Geographical Society, and international geographical organizations (including the participation of Russian geographers in their events). It publishes chronicles of geographical symposia, conferences, and meetings; summaries and reviews on new geographical works; and articles dedicated to jubilees and memories of outstanding geographers of the country and the world.

The journal's content is based on a stable system of rubrics in accordance with the thematic trends of publications.

Each material received by the journal’s editorial board is reviewed by the pool of reviewers formed for this purpose from leading geographers of academic institutes and higher education establishments of Moscow, St. Petersburg, Irkutsk, Vladivostok, and a number of other cities.

Over its entire history, the journal has been the country's main scientific periodical on geography and scientific information platform to discuss issues of the development of geographical science, cover at length its theoretical achievements, and use research results in practice.

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Vol 87, No 3 (2023)

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Axiomatic Foundation of the Central Place Theory: Revision from the Position of the Russian Scientific School
Dmitriev R.V., Shuper V.A.

The article is devoted to clarifying the axiomatic foundation of the central place theory (CPT) and identifying the possibilities and limitations of the logical transition in research from real settlement systems to central place systems. The necessity of relying on the CPT axioms is determined in the following form: (1) the space of the CP system is not infinite, but finite: the basis of each system is formed by an isolated lattice; theory deals with physical space, not mathematical or geographical; (2) space is homogeneous and isotropic in all respects, with the exception of the distribution of not only the urban, but also the rural population; (3) the hexagonal lattice corresponds to the equilibrium state of an isolated CP system as an attractor; deviations from the hexagonal shape are the result of only external influence on the system; (4) CP systems are polymorphic–they can exist in modifications both with the same and with different values of K-parameter ∈ (1; 7] for all levels of the hierarchy. The axiom about the “rational” behavior of the consumer is accepted when establishing the hierarchy of the CP in terms of the functions performed; when establishing their hierarchy in terms of population, it is redundant. In contrast to the foreign approach to CPT, which involves the transfer of the properties of an ideal CP system to a real settlement system, within the framework of the Russian school approach, they are compared. The possibility of the latter is due to the equivalence principle in the relativistic version of the theory: the formation of settlement systems in geographic space occurs similarly to the formation of CP systems in physical space. In both cases, if the gravitational effects are compensated, it is impossible to distinguish the settlement system from the CP system, that is, a heterogeneous and anisotropic geographic space from a homogeneous and isotropic physical one. The immediate consequence of this is the equivalence, on the one hand, of the population size of settlements and population size of central places, and, on the other hand, of the distances between them in real settlement systems and CP systems.

Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ. 2023;87(3):339-347
pages 339-347 views


The Structure of the Unified Energy System of Russia in the Post-Soviet Period
Ataev Z.A.

The article examines the Unified Energy System of Russia from the point of view of its modern content and connectivity of structural parts. It is shown how the patterns of development of the USSR and Russia’s energy space are historically connected. The main attention is paid to the geographical analysis of changes in the industrial space of Russia, which determines the bet on factual information. The study revealed that there are three structural parts in the Unified Energy System of Russia. According to the criterion of the absence of electrical connections for parallel operation with other systems, a zone of technologically isolated (decentralized) energy systems is allocated, this is by definition the area of network incoherence. According to the criterion of synchronous operation (with a common frequency of electric current), two more spatial zones are allocated. The first synchronous zone includes six integrated power systems. Geographical analysis shows that elements of weak communication are inherent in all power systems and are produced by the transformation of the post-Soviet space. A pronounced defect of network incoherence is Kaliningrad oblast. The energy system of the South is based on the transit of electricity through the territory of Ukraine. The disconnection will reduce the stability of the European segment of the Unified Energy System of Russia, the risks of losing operational access to Transnistria, Moldova and the south-western segment of the European energy system are high. Therefore, capital-intensive network projects bypassing Ukraine are relevant. The energy system of the Urals provides the Center–Siberia link with transit through Kazakhstan and, as a consequence, network incoherence and the risks of losing access to Central Asia. The second synchronous zone of the Unified Energy System of Russia includes one unified energy system of the East, which operates in parallel, but not synchronously with the first zone (weak network connection). The energy system of the East has a narrow spectrum of intersystem communication, but it is very promising for integration with the energy system of China.

Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ. 2023;87(3):348-357
pages 348-357 views
Evaluation of Conditions and Factors for the Formation of Regional Air Hubs in Yekaterinburg, Tyumen, Novosibirsk and Krasnoyarsk
Sorokin O.V., Voloshok A.S.

The article proposes a methodology for assessing the conditions and factors that contribute to the formation of regional air hubs. As conditions, the following are considered: the transport and geographical location and local demand’s volume, as factors–airport throughput, representation of the base air carrier, infrastructure for transfer and the quality of the take-off and landing schedule. For the analysis, four airports: Koltsovo (Ekaterinburg), Roschino (Tyumen), Tolmachevo (Novosibirsk) and Emelyanovo (Krasnoyarsk) were selected that are most suitable for the formation of a regional air hub in them. These airports serve the largest cities and are located on the outskirts of their territorial groupings of cities facing other territorial groupings of cities between which the transfer will be carried out, which is the best combination for forming a regional hub. A regional hub is an airport in a non-capital city that specializes in servicing transfer transportation between different parts of the country. For each condition and factor, the actual or calculated value of the indicator is given and normalized from 0 to 1. Due to the constancy of conditions for a short period of time, in order to increase the potential for the formation of an air hub, the airport administration needs to work with factors, among which the most important, flexible in terms of speed and cost of implementation is the factor of the aviation schedule of take-offs and landings. According to the results of the analysis, the Yekaterinburg airport has optimal conditions for the formation of a hub, but the administration of the Novosibirsk airport operates with factors better, for example, it works on the convenience of transfer connections, interacting with the base air carrier.

Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ. 2023;87(3):358-369
pages 358-369 views


Landscape Invariants–Order Parmeters of a Dynamic System
Baibar A.S., Puzachenko M.Y., Sandlersky R.B., Krenke A.N.

The article considers theoretical and methodological substantiation of identifying invariants problem in nonlinear dynamic systems. Invariance in context of stable spatio-temporal structures in a landscape was proposed by V.B. Sochava in 1961. The accumulation of long-term series of landscape observations by means of multispectral imaging made it possible to identify invariants in practice. An analysis of Landsat multispectral measurements from 1987 to 2022 for the southern taiga landscape (Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve) shows that invariants identified as order parameters primarily determine total aboveground vegetation biomass, the water content in vegetation and soils, and the intensity of photosynthesis, i.e. bioproduction process. The proposed scheme for analyzing time series of remote sensing data makes it possible to assess landscape cover at the time of survey with respect to invariants and to identify the main control parameters that determine changes in environmental conditions and self-development of geosystems. The assessment of vegetation and relief contribution to formation of invariants structure was made to reveal invariants physical meaning. The results showed that relief has little effect on order parameters, and vegetation cover make the greatest contribution to invariant structure formation. Since invariants make it possible to identify the most stationary states, they can be used to solve applied problems in agriculture and forestry, as well as in the assessment of various ecosystem services.

Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ. 2023;87(3):370-390
pages 370-390 views
The Climate of Zonal Plain Landscapes of Russia during the Modern Global Warming in Summer
Titkova T.B., Zolotokrylin A.N.

Changes in climate parameters and surface characteristics were considered between 1961–1990 and 1991–2020 climate periods on the plains of the European part of Russia and Western Siberia in different landscape zones in summer. Zonal landscapes with a significant change in climate parameters in the 1991–2020 period of warming were identified, connections between changes of climate parameters and landscape characteristics were determined, climate trends of parameters in particular landscape zones were considered. In the 1991–2020 summer period of warming, significant changes in climate parameters were identified in subboreal landscapes from forest steppe to semi-desert on the European part of Russia. A pronounced warming, a decrease of precipitation total, evaporation and soil water are noted. In Western Siberia in arctic and boreal landscapes, a warming in June and August is observed, which led to an increase of evaporation and soil draining. In boreal landscapes of the European part of Russia and subboreal landscapes of Western Siberia, significant changes in climate parameters did not occur. The analysis of connection between evaporation with soil water and temperature with precipitation in landscape zones indicates about its reliance on landscape zone. Temperature has the most impact on evaporation and topsoil water, it is positive in arctic and boreal landscapes and negative in subboreal ones. Precipitation has the most positive impact in subboreal landscapes. In boreal landscapes, a significant temperature rise may be insufficient for a significant increase of evaporation, apparently due to the impact of dense vegetation cover with a slow heat exchange. In subboreal landscapes, a significant temperature rise leads to a significant negative response of evaporation due to a quick heat exchange.

Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ. 2023;87(3):391-402
pages 391-402 views


New Data on the Age of the Early Khvalynian Transgression of the Caspian Sea
Kurbanov R.N., Belyaev V.R., Svistunov M.I., Butuzova E.A., Solodovnikov D.A., Taratunina N.A., Yanina T.A.

This study presents results of the first detailed absolute chronology of the Early Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian Sea based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Study was carried out for special facies of the Khvalyninan deposits–Chocolate Clays, widely distributed in the Northern Caspian Lowland. In the studied reference sections of the Lower Volga region (Srednyaya Akhtuba, Raygorod, Leninsk), Chocolate Clays are of considerable thickness, three subfacies are distinguished in their structure: a unit of interbedded sands and loams; unit of unified dense clays; and a unit of characteristic clays with thin interlayers of silt, forming a characteristic fine-platy structure. The first unit reflects the conditions of the initial penetration of the Khvalynian waters into the studied area, the second unit reflects conditions of a deep-sea bay, while the third unit reflects the time of regression, with a significant influence of alluvial processes on sedimentation. OSL chronology was obtained for both quartz and feldspar grains using modern measuring protocols. Our dating results clearly indicate that formation of the Lower Khvalynian marine deposits in the northern part of the Lower Volga region took place between 27 and 14 ka. New data on the age of the Khvalynian deposits are further confirmed by dating of the overlying Kastanozem soils (9.6–0.7 ka) and the underlying loess-paleosol series (37–19 ka). High-resolution luminescence dating for the first time distinguished four stages in the development of the Khvalynian transgression in the Lower Volga region: the initial penetration of waters to a level of ~5 m (27 ka); stage of stabilization and gradual level rise from ~5 to ~7 m (27–20 ka); the stage of active sea level rise and movement of the coastline northward (16–15 ka); and the final regressive phase with a drop in sea level (15–14 ka).

Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ. 2023;87(3):403-419
pages 403-419 views


Water Crisis in India: Concept of Nexus-Regional Solution
Sdasyuk G.V., Alekseeva N.N.

In India, which ranks first in the world in terms of population size in 2023, rapid technological and economic development is combined with an increased scarcity of natural resources, which is especially acute in the lack of water resources. Increase of water consumption (90% of water is consumed by irrigation and agriculture), growing competition for water resources from energy, industry, urbanization, etc. require a transition from sectoral water use management to management based on the concept of nexus (latin)–linkage between sectors. The central is Water–Energy–Food nexus which has been studied since the early 2010s. In developing the new National Water Policy of India, attention is focused on the development of the Water–Energy–Food production nexus. The article is based on a review of scientific publications, a critical analysis of forecasts and scenarios, and the use of statistical databases. The most acute problems of water availability and rationalization of its use are discussed at the state level and at the level of large river basins (project “Pure Ganges”). Technological and managerial decisions made in India aimed at rationalizing water use based on an unsophisticated approach are considered. A new driving force is the accelerated development of renewable energy sources. The problems of the Water–Energy–Food production nexus can be successfully solved only in the context of integral regional development, which becomes more complicated under the climate change.

Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ. 2023;87(3):420-429
pages 420-429 views


Integral Assessment of Anthropogenic Impact on the Baikal Natural Territory: Methodological Approaches and Typology of Municipal Units
Antonov E.V., Belyaev Y.R., Bityukova V.R., Bredikhin A.V., Dehnich V.S., Eremenko E.A., Koldobskaya N.A., Prusikhin O.E., Safronov S.G.

The article developed an algorithm for the integral assessment of anthropogenic impact (AI) with spatial discreteness for municipalities of the Baikal Natural Territory (BNT). It includes 21 normalized indicators for the 2014–2020 period, aggregated into 7 sub-indices (impact on the atmosphere, water, forest resources, agricultural impact, solid waste, disturbed lands and objects of accumulated harm, as well as background impact). To determine the weight of the indicators, a survey was conducted of experts representing the scientific community (specialists in the field of integrated assessments of certain types of impacts or in the field of environmental problems of the BNT), the expert community (leading rating agencies) and representatives of the environmental management system of the regions included in the BNT. The integral indicator made it possible to build a rating of municipalities and identify key factors in the formation of the environmental situation. According to the integral index, five types of territories are identified, subtypes are distinguished by the nature of the impact on the environment. A high level of AI is typical for large cities and localities of enterprises, especially mining, in which a full set of load components operates. The increased level is observed in cities, suburban municipalities with a high burden from the vital activity of the population, as well as in large agricultural areas with a developed extractive industry. The average level of AI is typical for a small number of rural areas and small towns due to the load from agriculture and forestry. The reduced level of impact is formed mainly in semi-peripheral areas, where the load on forest resources plays a special role, and some suburban areas with more developed agriculture. A low level of AI is typical for peripheral, sparsely populated municipal units with a noticeable proportion of pollution from heating oil in residential housing. For BNT, a special role in the formation of the ecological situation is played by large tracts of disturbed land, high volumes of solid waste generation and objects of accumulated damage left over from the period of Soviet industrialization.

Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ. 2023;87(3):430-447
pages 430-447 views


The Contribution of A.E. Sluka to the Development of Russian Human Geography of the Foreign World
Kolosov V.A., Sluka N.A.

The authors analyze the contribution of the Honored Professor of Moscow State University A.E. Sluka to the development of the Soviet and Russian school of socioeconomic regional studies of the foreign world. It is possible to distinguish three key areas in the studies of the scholar, who relied on the works of his teachers–the founders of contemporary national human geography N.N. Baranskii and I.A. Vitver: geography of France, demogeography of Europe, and geography of the Greater Paris. From today’s standpoint, the significance of A.E. Sluka publications on France consist in the accuracy of the characteristics of its regions as a basis for understanding the territorial shifts and the social situation, and the evolution of regional politics in the country and other European countries. A.E. Sluka believed that the experience of regional policy in France (in French terms, aménagement du territoire) is important for Russia. The scientist was a leading Russian specialist in demogeography and one of the first to draw attention to the relation between the population dynamics of the region and its main structures with the migration component. He made a considerable contribution to the comparative study of the natural movement and mobility of the population in the countries of Western Europe by regions. A significant place in the work of A.E. Sluka belonged to the Greater Paris. In the author’s works, the periods of prosperity and decline of the city are linked with world events, its functions, and the emergence of global economy. A multiscale approach was applied, which made it possible to identify the place of the Paris urban agglomeration in the settlement systems of different levels, the economy and political life of the region, the country and Europe as a whole. The studies of A.E. Sluka created a basis for many academic courses and was developed in the works of his students and the scholars of the Institute of Urban Economics, the Institute of Demography and the Institute of Urban Studies of the HSE University, the Faculty of Linguistics and Regional Studies and the Institute of Social Sciences of Moscow State University and other institutions.

Izvestiâ Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Seriâ geografičeskaâ. 2023;87(3):448-458
pages 448-458 views

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