Lëd i sneg

The journal “Ice and Snow” is a professional academic periodical publication in the field of glaciology and cryology of the Earth. It continues the series «Data of Glaciological Studies» that was established in 1961 by the USSR Academy of Sciences. Its themes cover all branches of glaciology including studies of the atmospheric ice, snow cover and avalanches, mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets, sea, river, lake and underground ices, glacial flows (torrents) and icings as well as past glaciations on the Earth and possible cooling in future. Its scope also includes the applied topics: processes of icing, snow storms and drifts, movements of surging glaciers and glacier floods, like the known catastrophe of 2002 on the Caucasus Kolka Glacier.

Founders of the journal are the Institute of Geography of the RAS and the Russian Geographical Society. It is distributed by the Publisher “Nauka”. Its editorial board includes leading glaciologists from Russia and other countries. The journal has a web site and is available in electronic format. The Board currently uses a system of reviewing and interactions with authors via electronic mail. The journal continues the numbering system for volumes and issues previously used for «Data of Glaciological Studies», and it is published four times in a year, i.e. in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Articles are published in the Russian language with summaries and extended abstracts in English (explanations of figures are also given in two languages). Some papers are published in English with extended summaries in Russian. This journal has been registered by the Russian Federal Agency for Press and Mass Communication. It is indexed in the Russian (e-Library) and international (Scopus) bibliographic databases. The journal is included in the special list that the Main Certifying Commission of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation approve as a source of publication for dissertations. Each journal issue contains 144 pages in A4 format. Some articles are printed with figures in colour.

Issues are prepared in the Institute of Geography RAS where the Editorial Board has its regular meetings and its editorial staff works. The Journal has its own web site which is also available via the Russian Geographical Society web site.

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Vol 63, No 1 (2023)

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Glaciers and ice sheets

Ice and Snow Thickness of the IGAN Glacier in the Polar Urals from Ground-Based Radio-Echo Sounding 2019 and 2021
Lavrentiev I.I., Nosenko G.A., Glazovsky A.F., Shein A.N., Ivanov M.N., Leopold Y.K.

Small glaciers of the Polar Urals are at the limits of their existence. Their state and changes serve as an important natural indicator of modern climatic changes. In 2019 and 2021, we performed ground-based radar studies of one of these glaciers, the IGAN Glacier, to measure ice thickness and snow cover. We used Picor-Led (1600 MHz), and VIRL–7 (20 MHz) GPRs. According to these data, the glacier has an average thickness of 49 m, maximum 114 m. The glacier has a polythermal structure: a cold ice layer with an average thickness of 12 m (maximum 43 m), overlaps the temperate ice with an average thickness of 37 m (maximum 114 m in the upper part of the glacier). The volume of ice contained in the glacier (in its studied part) is 14.3 × 106 m3, of which 10.89 × 106 m3 is temperate ice and 3.44 × 106 m3 is cold ice. For comparison: according to the radar data of 1968, the total ice thickness then reached 150 m in the central part, and the thickness of the upper layer of cold ice was 40–50 m. Radar snow gauge survey allowed to build schemes of seasonal snow thickness distribution over the glacier surface in 2019 and 2021, where there is a general spatial pattern of snow thickness growth from 2 m on the glacier terminus to 8 m or more to the rear wall of the corrie, which is due to the significant influence of avalanche feeding and wind transport. The glacier has lost about 3.2 × 106 m3 of ice per last decade, if the rate of loss continues, it may disappear in 40–50 years. However, this process may have a non-linear nature, as it involves not only climatic factors, but also local terrain features, on the one hand contributing to a high accumulation of snow, on the other – the formation of a glacial lake during glacier retreat, which may increase ablation.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):5-16
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Outburst of the Spartakovskoye Glacier-Dammed Lake and Changes of the Outlet Glacier of the Semyonov–Tyan-Shansky Ice Cap, Severnaya Zemlya in 2021
Muraviev A.Y., Chernov R.A.

In the second half of August 2021, outburst flood from the Spartakovskoe Lake, one of the largest glacier-dammed lakes in the Russian sector of the Arctic, occurred on the Bolshevik Island (the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago). The lake hollow was drained. The volume of water discharged from the lake into the Spartak fjord was about 376 ± 21 mln. m3. Only 5 years have passed since the last outburst of the lake in August 2016. The lake hollow was filled with water faster than in the period 2006–2016. The volume of runoff into the lake increased significantly due to more intensive surface ablation on the glaciers of the drainage basin during the anomalously warm summers in 2018–2021. For the up-floating of the ice dam restraining the lake overflowing, the height of the water edge in the lake before the outburst should have been about 113 m. Compared to the state of 2016, the maximum possible water level in the lake has dropped by about 10 m. That was a result of lowering of the glacier surface and, accordingly, a decrease in the thickness of the dam ice. The cartographic method was used to find a location of the area of the greatest depression of the dam surface, the occurrence was conditioned by the development of the under-ice runoff channel in 2016. It can be assumed that during the lake outburst in the second half of August 2021, its location was approximately the same as in 2016. The water level in the lake will no longer be able to rise to the watershed with the Bazovaya River basin (123 m). The flow from the lake to the Bazovaya River is now impossible. The glacial-dammed Lake Spartakovskoe is now a part of only the Kara Sea basin. Under the present-day climatic conditions, the surface of the ice dam decreases and, accordingly, the volume of runoff into the lake increases. In the future, this will probably result in more frequent outburst of the lake, a decrease in its volume, and accordingly, a reduction of the water volume discharging into the lake.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):17-32
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Isotopic Signature of Precipitation in the Elbrus Region
Chizhova J.N., Mikhalenko V.N., Kutuzov S.S., Shukurov K.A., Kozachek A.V.

The aim of the work was to study the isotopic characteristics of precipitation to establish the dependence of δ18O values on temperature at the time of precipitation and to get closer to understanding the processes that form the isotopic signature of the Elbrus snow cover and glacial ice. The sampling of precipitation was organized at Azau station, located at the foot of Elbrus at an altitude of 2300 m for the period from May 01.2019 to September 27.2021. The sampling was carried out once a day at 9:00 Moscow time. The air temperature was recorded at the meteorological station in the Terskol village (Roshydromet station No. 4334250). To study the main features of long-range air transport and possible sources of moisture, 5-day back trajectories were reconstructed using the NOAA HYSPLIT_4 trajectory model. The results showed that precipitation in the Elbrus region in winter was associated with the prevailing transfer from the Atlantic, in summer – with the predominance of transfer from the regions of Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The Mediterranean Sea in all seasons was the area from which the air and moisture were transferred to Elbrus. The values of δ18О and δ2Н of precipitation varied from 0.52 to −28.22‰ and from 16.3 to −224.1‰, respectively, revealing regular seasonality with high values of δ18О and δ2Н in summer and low in winter. The deuterium excess varied over a wide range from 24.8 to −14.6‰. All obtained values of δ18О and δ2Н were approximated by the equation δ2Н = 8δ18О + 7.06 (R2 = 0.98), which was close to the global meteoric water line. In general, for 2 years of observations, the relationship between the δ18О values of precipitation and the temperature of the surface air layer was expressed as 0.85‰/°С. Total mean absolute error in the reconstruction of air temperatures from the δ18О value of precipitation was 3.2°С due to objective reasons and also differences in meteorological conditions of two years of observations.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):33-47
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Study of Characteristics of the Supraglacial Runoff of the Austre Grønfjordbreen, Spitsbergen
Chernov R.A.

Surface runoff on the glacier is represented by two aquifers: a hydro-network of streams and a porous layer of melting crust in which meltwater moves. The first one transfers water from the snowmelt zone, and the second one drains the ablation area. Data on the state of the melting crust at various levels of the glacier and the speed of water movement in it had been obtained. The water store in the melting crust were estimated, the effect of daily ablation on the runoff in the pores and micro-streams was shown. With a limited water supply in the melting crust, the increase in runoff takes place due to the formation of micro-streams having no channels. As the distance from the snow line increases and the ablation becomes more intensive, the portion of streams becomes greater. Observations on the glacier made at different levels showed a qualitative agreement with our estimates. As for the hydro-network, water discharges in watercourses of various sizes and the rate of water transit in them were estimated. It is shown that the meandering of the channels results in regulation of the rate of water transit. For small streams with water flow rate smaller than 200 l/s, this speed turned out to be 0.98 ± 0.25 m/s, for larger streams it was equal to 1.20 ± 0.11 m/s. Calculations of snow and ice melt based on the air temperature above the glacier made possible to estimate the channel runoff in both, the hydro-network, and the weathering crust. During the period of active snowmelt, when the snow line moves lower, the main contribution to the surface runoff is made by the hydro-network of watercourses. As the snow line rises and the area of open ice increases, the share of runoff in the weathering crust increases. By the end of the summer period, runoff in the weathering crust becomes predominant.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):48-59
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Snow cover and avalanches

Geobiochemical Characteristics of the Snow Cover of the White Sea Coast in 2021 and 2022
Kotova E.I., Topchaya V.Y., Novikova Y.V.

For two years (2021 and 2022) snow sampling carried out in the coastal zone of the Onega and Dvina Bays of the White Sea during the period of maximum snow accumulation (March). The snow was analyzed for the content of the main ions (Cl, , Na+, Ca2+, K+); biogenic elements (phosphorus, silicon, nitrogen), pH and mineralization were determined. The algological composition of the snow cover was also studied. The results showed that the snow was slightly acidic (average pH 5.4). Cl and Na+ were the main ions in the coastal zone; and Ca2+ in the estuary zone. The high content of marine ions and mineralization were determined near the Paranikha Bay (Dvina Bay), where the release of sea water onto the ice is noted annually. Compared to previous studies, in which snow samples were taken in the costal zone, the content of marine ions in the territory under consideration is an order of magnitude higher. As a result of the influence of marine aerosols, the values of snow cover mineralization can reach 140–680 mg/L. The content of dissolved silicon in melt water is increased in the zone of influence of atmospheric emissions from urbanized territories (Arkhangelsk, Novodvinsk, Severodvinsk), as well as near the granite quarry on the coast of Onega Bay. During the study period, 14 taxa of microalgae (species and supraspecific taxa) belonging to the division Bacillariophyta were found in snow samples. The maximum value of the total number of microalgae (1.293 thousand cells/L.) in the snow cover was determined in 2022.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):60-70
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Ground ices and icings

Long-Term Dynamics of the Huge Anmangynda Aufeis in the North-East of Russia (1962–2021)
Zemlianskova A.A., Alekseev V.R., Shikhov A.N., Ostashov A.A., Nesterova N.V., Makarieva O.M.

The huge Anmangynda aufeis is located in the valley of the river of the same name in the Magadan region in North-East of Russia. This is the only in the world aufeis site with a 30-years period of ground-based observations (1962–1991). The materials of these observations were supplemented with data obtained from the analysis of Landsat and Sentinel satellite images for the period 2000–2021, as well as the results of field investigations carried out in 2020–2021. The long-term variability of the maximum area, volume and average thickness of ice, the dynamics of formation and destruction of the aufeis ice in the cold and warm periods of the year were analyzed. It was found that the maximum values of the area and volume of ice on the dates before the start of ablation decreased by 25 and 33%, respectively. In 2000–2021, the average values of the aufeis characteristics are estimated as 4.7 km2 and 7.1 million m3, while in 1962–1991 – 5.5 km2 and 8.5 million m3. The analysis of the intra-annual dynamics revealed that the Anmangynda aufeis being earlier the perennial formation has transformed to the seasonal one. Further researches of the Anmangynda aufeis will make possible to assess the influence of various factors, including climatic ones, on the processes of an aufeis formation and to forecast their changes in the future for the cryolitic zone of the North-East of our country.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):71-84
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Investigation of Isotopes of Ice in the Askinskaya and Kinderlinskaya Caves (Southern Urals)
Chizhova J.N., Trofimova E.V., Dubinina E.O., Kossova S.A.

The aim of this work was to determine mechanisms of formation of perennial ice in caves of the Southern Urals, as well as to find sources of water and processes responsible for the formation of isotopic parameters of the cave ice. Isotopes δ18О and δD were investigated. The caves Askinskaya and Kinderlinskaya are the most famous ones in the Southern Urals located at the lowest levels a.s.l. (260 and 208 m, respectively). In the summer of 2019, samples of perennial ice and infiltration water were taken in both caves. Ices of the Askinskaya and Kinderlinskaya caves are characterized by a narrow range of δ18О and δD values with very slight variations in depth: −11.42…−12.89‰ and −83.8…−95.7‰, respectively. Values the isotopes in the infiltration water sampled in the Kinderlinskaya cave are: δ18О = −13 and δD = −76‰. For both Askinskaya and Kinderlinskaya caves, the isotopic parameters of ice correspond to the calculated line of Rayleigh crystallization in a closed system when water with the isotopes freezes. The narrow range of values δ18О and δD suggests that aufeises (naleds) existing in caves for many years are the congelation (hydrogenic) ice formed by the growth of thin water layers freezing through at a high rates. Infiltration waters are formed mainly due to the precipitation of the winter seasons. The ratio between winter and summer precipitation is about 2:1. The infiltration type of the cave ice alimentation as well as evidence of long time of averaging of the isotopic signal in the atmospheric precipitation do not allow to use the cave ices as a climatic (paleo)archive.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):85-92
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Reconstruction of the mean January Air Temperature in the Early Holocene on the Eastern Coast of Chukotka
Budantseva N.A., Maslakov A.A., Vasil’chuk Y.K., Vasil’chuk A.C., Kuzyakin L.P.

The investigation is concerned with the Early Holocene syngenetic massive wedge ice exposed in the outcrop of a polygonal peatland in the upper part of the third marine terrace near Lorino settlement on the eastern coast of Chukotka. Based on the obtained radiocarbon dates of peat, it was found that the formation of a peatland in the area began about 14–13 cal ka BP, at the end of the Younger Dryas, while the termination of the active stage of peat accumulation was dated to about 10–9 cal ka BP. The beginning of peat accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas, earlier the officially accepted limit of the lower boundary of the Holocene (11.7 cal ka BP), and the termination of its formation by the middle of the Greenlandian Holocene period is not a rare phenomenon in Russian permafrost zone, although it is traditionally assumed that the most active formation of peatlands has been going on during the thermal maximum in the middle of the Holocene. The age inversions noted in the peat vertical profiles are the most likely indicative of the processes of re-deposition of ancient organic material due to erosion by water of the third marine terrace sediments and the separation of the allochthonous peat. During the period from 2015 to 2021, six fragments of peatland exposures with the ice wedges were studied. Analysis of the obtained data on the content of stable oxygen isotopes in the ice show that δ18О values vary within the range from –15.5 to –18‰. These values are in good agreement with the data for Early Holocene ice wedges earlier obtained in other areas of the eastern coast of Chukotka (Anadyr town, Uelen settlement), where authors report the δ18O values from –16 to –19.4‰. This suggests that the ice wedge growth as well as the peat accumulation were the most active in Early Holocene. The highest δ18О values (from –13.1 to –16.8‰) were obtained for the modern ice veinlets. The ratio δ2H–δ18O in the ice wedges, in general, is indicative of a good preservation of isotope signature of winter precipitation. It has been found that approximate mean January air temperature in the Early Greenlandian period varied from –23 to –27°С, which is, on average, 3°С below than the present-day ones.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):93-103
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Sea, river and lake ices

Chemical Composition of the Hydro-Cryogenic System of Lake Baikal: “Snow on Ice–Ice–Water Under-Ice”
Vorobyeva I.B., Vlasova N.V., Belozertseva I.A.

The results of studies of the chemical composition and the basic regularities of migration of macro- and microelements within the hydro-cryogenic system “snow on ice–ice–water under ice” obtained in the winter of 2016/17 in the waters of Lake Baikal are presented. Such investigation over the Lake area was carried out for the first time. It has been found that due to climatic conditions, dates of freeze-up (formation of the ice on the Lake) differ by 7–10 days from North to South, and the depth of snow on ice and its density change over the Lake area by 2 times, however there are some parts without snow. It was found that the changes in the pH indexes were identical across the whole Lake area – minimum pH values are present in the snow (from 5.59 to 7.39), average values – in the ice (6.01–7.50), and maximum values are noted in the water under ice (7.42–8.50). For the most part, increased quantities of suspended matter and an increase in the pH of snow were recorded near settlements, which is obviously a result of the anthropogenic influence. It was determined that the concentration of ions in the ice in relation to their content in the initial solutions decreases within the series: > Cl > > . Among the cations, K+, Na+ ions are involved into the ice intensively, while the Ca2+ and Mg2+ – weakly. The ice phase is enriched with ammonium ions outside the settlements. Near settlements and in shallow water, quantity of salts in the ice may be close to or equal to their concentration in the water under ice. The coefficient of migration in the water (Kx) divide the chemical elements into two groups – the mobile ones and slow-moving elements. The first group includes Ca, Cu, Sr, Mg, Co, Zn, and Cd (Kx >1), the second one contains Ba, Mn, Si, Fe, Al, Ti, Ni, Cr, P, and K.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):104-115
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Estimates of the Statistical Correlation Between the Extreme Ice Pressure Patterns with Various Spatial Resolution
Klyachkin S.V.

Ice pressure is characterized with significant spatial variability. Study of this variability with the help of in situ observations is rather difficult, because (1) the instrumental measurements are expensive and technically complicated, and, hence, the amount of such measurements is little, and (2) the visual observations have predominantly qualitative character and depend significantly on the observer’s experience. The most widely used method of obtaining the ice pressure information is model simulations. The existing ice dynamics models allow simulating the ice pressure averaged within the area of the model grid cell, which usually has the spatial size varying from 5 to 25 km, sometimes - up to 50 km. It is clear that such spatial resolution does not give the picture of local peaks of ice pressure with spatial scale much less that the size of the grid cell. The aim of the presented paper is, basing on the model results with spatial resolution from 5 to 50 km, to study the statistical correlations between the ice pressure fields with various spatial resolutions, and to evaluate the possibility of calculating the intensity and probability of ice pressure peaks with spatial scale less than the spatial resolution of the model. In order to solve this problem, the numerical dynamic-thermodynamic model of ice cover evolution developed both for the entire Arctic Ocean and for large regions (the Barents and Kara Seas), and, for more detailed spatial resolution, for some smaller basins (the Pechora Sea, the south-western Kara Sea, the Baidara Bay), was used. The ice pressure fields within the same region and the same period of time were simulated with various spatial resolutions – from 5 to 50 km. The initial ice conditions were stated with the help the AARI ice charts which cover both the entire Arctic Ocean and the specific regions mentioned above. The comparison of model results with various spatial resolutions allowed revealing moderate statistical correlation between the average ice pressure obtained from the lower resolution model, and ice pressure dispersion obtained from the higher resolution one (correlation coefficients comprise from 0.3 to 0.7). This correlation is put into base of the main principles of calculating the extreme ice pressure in the spatial scale much less than the spatial resolution of the model. The statistical probability of the extreme ice pressure is strictly connected with the ratio between the spatial resolution of the model and the spatial scale of the extreme ice pressure to be estimated. For example, as the preliminary calculations show, if the spatial resolution of the numerical model equals 50 km, the extreme ice pressure in the scale of 1 km can exceed the mean value by 5–7 times. It gives on opportunity to obtain more comprehensive picture of ice pressure, and, as the method would be developed further, to increase significantly the informative value of the ice pressure forecasts. The limits of applicability of the proposed approach are discussed specifically.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):116-129
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Applied problems

Solution of the One-Dimensional Stefan Problem with Two Transitions for Modelling of the Water Freezing in a Glacial Crevasse
Popov S.V.

This article presents a numerical solution of the one-dimensional Stefan problem with two phase transitions, which is implemented on a non-uniform grid. The system of equations is written in a general form, i.e. it includes not only conductive, but also convective and dissipative terms. The problem is solved numerically by the front-fixing method on a non-uniform grid using an implicit finite-difference scheme, which is implemented by the sweep method. This algorithm can also be used to create more complex mathematical models of heat and mass transfer, as well as to describe glacial and subglacial processes. The mathematical apparatus proposed in the article was used to solve a specific problem of water freezing in a glacial crevasse. The presence and progression of crevasses, in turn, is a demonstrative factor indicating the dynamic activity of the glacier. Crevasses formed in one way or another can not only expand, but also decrease in size until they completely disappear. One of the reasons for their closure is the freezing of near-surface meltwater in the crevasse. Such a process was observed on glaciers near Mirny and Novolazarevskaya stations (East Antarctica). This process is modeled as an example of solving the Stefan problem. It is believed that all media are homogeneous and isotropic. The temperature of the water in the crevasse corresponds to the melting temperature of the ice. Modeling has shown that for the coastal part of the cold Antarctic glacier with an average temperature of –10°C and below, crevasses 5–10 cm of width freeze in less than a week. Wider ones freeze a little longer. 30 cm wide crevasses close in about two to three weeks, depending on the temperature of the glacier.

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):130-140
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Experimental Research of Ice Cuttings Transport by Air While Drilling of the Snow-Firn Layer
Ignatiev S.A., Vasilev D.A., Bolshunov A.V., Vasileva M.A., Ozhigin A.Y.

The snow-firn layer of the glaciers of Antarctica and Greenland contains data on the composition of the atmosphere in the past, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, anthropogenic pollution, and many other unique information. Nowadays, core drilling methods are widely used for sampling the snow-firn layer. Due to numerous complications (loss of air circulation, drill bit sticking, ice balling up, etc.), air ice drilling is not wide spread, yielding in productivity and reliability to thermal and auger drilling methods. However, core barrel drilling with reverse bottom-hole air circulation is a promising technology for drilling the glaciers of Antarctica and Greenland. However, core drilling with reverse bottom-hole air circulation is a promising technology for drilling Antarctic and Greenland glaciers. The authors suggest that this technology, if successfully implemented, will significantly exceed the currently used methods of drilling the upper layers of the glacier. Taking into account the failures of previous projects of core drilling with air, it was decided to conduct research in the conditions of Central Antarctica in order to substantiate the design parameters of the new drill. During 67th Russian Antarctic Expedition (RAE) experimental studies of ice cuttings air transportation while drilling of the snow-firn layer were conducted at Vostok station. In the course of the experimental studies, the VK-22 borehole was drilled to a depth of 30 m with full core and ice cuttings sampling. According to the selected probes, the dependences of the change in the density of the snow-firn layer, bulk density and fractional composition of ice cuttings on the depth of occurrence were established. By using the experimental facility, the suspension velocity (critical speed in drilling) of ice particles of various sizes and shapes was found for the first time. Directions for further research and ways to improve the experimental facility are proposed, which are planned to be implemented in the season of the 68th RAE

Lëd i sneg. 2023;63(1):141-152
pages 141-152 views

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