Problems of Virology

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International peer-reviewed scientific and practical journal "Problems of Virology" (Russian title Voprosy virusologii”, ISSN (Print) 0507-4088, ISSN (Online) 2411-2097) acquaints readers with the achievements of Russian and international virology, publishes articles on the study of viruses and viral diseases of humans, animals and plants. A prominent place in the journal is given to the publication of the results of experimental studies on various fields in fundamental and applied virology.

The journal publishes materials that contribute to the implementation in practice of the achievements of virological science in eliminating and reducing the prevalence of infectious diseases, as well as its diagnosis, prevention and treatment.

The review articles summarize the latest advances in virology. In order to attract the attention of virologists to the most actual issues requiring further study, the journal publishes editorial notes and book reviews. The reader will find in the journal a description of new research methods, new equipment, diagnostic and treatment tools.

The journal is intended for virologists (medical and veterinary), epidemiologists, parasitologists, pharmacologists, biochemists and other specialists.

«Problems of Virology» is an open access journal that does not charge for the publication of scientific articles.

The journal is presented in SCOPUS database (Q4).

The journal is included in the recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission "List of peer-reviewed scientific publications in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the doctoral degree (PhD), for the degree of doctor of science should be published" (in accordance with paragraph 5 of the Rules for the formation of the List, as part of the international abstract database and citation systems Scopus) in the following specialties:

  • 02.02 Epidemiology (medical and biological sciences)
  • 01.09 Infectious diseases
  • 03.07 Chemotherapy and antibiotics
  • 02.02 Virology (medical and biological sciences)
  • 02.03 Microbiology (medical and biological sciences)

The journal is presented in the following international bibliographic databases and information and reference systems: RSCI (on the platform WoS), Abstract Journals, AIDS & Cancer Research, Biocontrol News and Information, Biological Sciences, Chemical Abstracts, EBSCOhost Biological Abstracts, EBSCOhost Wildlife & Ecology Studies Worldwide, Elsevier BV Scopus, Elsevier BV EMBASE, Index Medicus, Excerpta Medica, Index Veterinarius, MEDLINE, National Library of Medicine PubMed, Parasitology Database, Poultry Abstracts, Review of Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Thomson Reuters Biological Abstracts, Thomson Reuters BIOSIS Previews, Thomson Reuters Science Citation Index Expanded, Thomson Reuters Web of Science, Tropical Diseases Bulletin, Veterinary Science Database, Virology and AIDS Abstracts, ROAD, DOAJ.

Content is available under license Creative Commons — Attribution 4.0 International, CC-BY.

Each article published in the journal is assigned a digital object identifier (DOI).

All articles, reviews and lectures published in the journal undergo mandatory double-blind peer review by members of the editorial board and invited experts.

Articles by foreign authors, as well as Russian-language articles separately recommended by the editorial board, are published in Russian and English under a single DOI. Native-language translation and its scientific editing is carried out at the expense of the Editorial Board.

The journal is registered with the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Communications. Certificate PI No. FS77-77676.

The journal is published once every 2 months (6 issues per year).

The journal is a printed edition of the All-Russian public organization “The All-Russian Scientific and Practical Society of Epidemiologists, Microbiologists and Parasitologists”.


  • FBIS Central Research Institute of Epidemiology of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare,
  • All-Russian public organization "All-Russian Scientific and Practical Society of Epidemiologists, Microbiologists and Parasitologists".


  • FBIS Central Research Institute of Epidemiology of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare.

When registering on the journal’s website readers and authors receive automatic notifications about the content of new issues of the Journal to their email address with the ability to unsubscribe from the newsletter.


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Current Issue

Vol 68, No 4 (2023)


Screening of antiviral activity of samples from chaga Inonotus obliquus and humic acid from brown coal on Vero cell culture against ectromelia virus (Poxviridae: Orthopoxvirus; ECTV)
Teplyakova T.V., Kabanov A.S., Ovchinnikova A.S., Odnoshevskyh D.A., Petrovskaya I.F., Nepomnyashchikh T.S., Pyankov O.V.

Introduction. The mouse-specific orthopoxvirus, ectromelia virus, is one of the best models that can be used to study key issues of pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of smallpox, and to develop measures to increase virulence, transmissibility, or the ability to overcome vaccine immunity.

The aim of the work is to screen the antiviral activity of samples from Inonotus obliquus chaga and humic acid from brown coal in vitro against ectromelia virus.

Materials and methods. We used ectromelia virus, strain K-1 (reg. No V-142), obtained from the State Collection of Pathogens of Viral Infections and Rickettsioses of the State Scientific Center of Virology and Biotechnology “Vector”; Vero Е6 cell culture (No 70) from the Collection of cell cultures of the State Scientific Center of Virology and Biotechnology “Vector”. Nine samples from chaga I. obliquus and humic acid from brown coal were used to evaluate the changes in the infectivity of the ectromelia virus on cell culture using 2 schemes of application of drugs and virus (preventive and therapeutic schemes), and to assess their cytotoxicity and antiviral activity.

Results. 50% cytotoxic concentration, 50% virus-inhibiting concentrations and selectivity index were determined for all samples. The studied samples were shown to be non-toxic to the monolayer of Vero cell culture in a dilution of 300 and more micrograms/ml, while demonstrated high antiviral activity against strain K-1 of ectromelia virus in two application schemes – preventive and curative.

Conclusion. All samples tested for ectromelia virus in vitro can be considered promising for further development of drugs against diseases caused by orthopoxviruses.

Problems of Virology. 2023;68(4):277-282
pages 277-282 views
Genetic features of the Puumala virus (Hantaviridae: Orthohantavirus) identified in the Moscow region
Blinova E.A., Makenov M.T., Morozkin E.S., Kholodilov I.S., Fedorova M.V., Zhurenkova O.B., Roev G.V., Khafizov K.F., Karan L.S.

Introduction. Puumala virus (family Hantaviridae, genus Orthohantavirus) is distributed in most regions of the European part of Russia. However, information about its genetic variants circulating on the territory of the Central Federal District is extremely scarce.

Materials and methods. Rodents’ tissue samples were tested after reverse transcription by PCR for the presence of hantaviral RNA. The amplified fragments of the L segment were sequenced by the Sanger method. For two samples, sequences of all three segments were obtained using the NGS method. Phylogenetic trees were built in the MEGA-X software.

Results. Puumala virus was found in six samples. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of sequences of three segments, the obtained genetic variants belong to the sublineage previously designated as W-RUS.

Conclusion. A genetic variant of the Puumala virus, belonging to the subline W-RUS, circulates on the territory of the Volokolamsk district of Moscow region.

Problems of Virology. 2023;68(4):283-290
pages 283-290 views
Epstein–Barr virus (Herpesviridae: Lymphocryptovirus) types 1 and 2 and other viral markers in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in two geographically and ethnically distinct regions of Russia
Smirnova K.V., Lubenskaya A.K., Senyuta N.B., Dushenkina T.E., Gurtsevitch V.E.

Introduction. The discovery of two types of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) (EBV-1 and EBV-2) that have different biological properties stimulated the search for neoplasms associated with each type of the virus.

The aim of the work is to study the nature of the association of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) with EBV-1 and EBV-2, serological activity for each viral type and the concentration of EBV DNA in the blood plasma of two gender, age and ethnic groups of NPC patients that represent geographically and climatically different regions of Russia,.

Materials and methods. In the blood plasma of patients with NPC and other non- EBV associated tumors of oral cavity (OTOCEBV−) from the North Caucasian (NCFD) and Central (CFD) Federal Districts of Russia, the types of EBV and the concentration of viral DNA were determined using respectively «nested» and real time PCR; titers of IgG and IgA antibodies to viral capsid antigen (VCA) were measured in indirect immunofluorescence assay.

Results. The blood plasma samples testing showed that NPC and OTOCEBV− patients were infected with both types of EBV in approximately equal proportions. In two groups of NPC patients infected with one of the virus types only, EBV-1 or EBV-2, respectively, no statistically significant differences were found between the geometric mean values of IgG and IgA anti-EBV antibody titers and viral DNA concentrations in blood plasma. The distribution of virus types was not affected by either patient gender or ethnogeographic origin. The difference was found only between age groups: EBV-2 dominated in NPC patients up to 60 years, and EBV-1 was prevalent in patients over 60 years.

Conclusion. The lack of the predominance of one of EBV types in NPC patients that are the representatives of different ethnic groups from geographically and climatically different regions, suggests that none of these factors play an important role in the NPC carcinogenesis. Evidently, each type of EBV, EBV-1 or EBV-2, if the necessary conditions arise, are able to exhibit its oncogenic potential to initiate tumor development.

Problems of Virology. 2023;68(4):291-301
pages 291-301 views
Molecular and biological properties of the African swine fever virus (Asfarviridae: Asfivirus) isolate ASF/Tatarstan 20/WB-12276
Shotin A.R., Chernyshev R.S., Morozova E.O., Igolkin A.S., Gruzdev K.N., Kolbin I.S., Lavrentiev I.A., Mazloum A.

Introduction. Up-to-date data and full characterization of circulating ASFV isolates play a crucial role in virus eradication and control in endemic regions and countries.

The aim of the study was to evaluate and characterize the molecular and biological properties of the ASFV isolate ASF/Tatarstan 20/WB-12276, conduct phylogenetic analysis, and compare the results with isolates circulating in Europe and Asia.

Materials and methods. For bioassay, eight heads of the Large White pigs weighing 15–20 kg/head were used. Detection of specific anti-ASFV antibodies by ELISA and immunoperoxidase method. Detection of ASFV genome was performed by qPCR. Isolation of ASF/Tatarstan 20/WB-12276 and determination of titer were performed in pig spleen cell culture. Sequencing was carried out by the Sanger method.

Results. The virus was characterized as highly virulent and capable of causing acute to subacute forms of ASF. Phylogenetic analysis revealed substitutions in the genome of the ASF/Tatarstan 20/WB-12276 isolate (IGR/I73R-I329L and I267L markers) that supported the clustering of the studied variant with isolates prevalent in most of Europe and Asia.

Conclusion. For the first time, the molecular and biological properties of the ASF/Tatarstan 20/WB-12276 virus isolate taken from a wild boar shot on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan were studied and analyzed.

Problems of Virology. 2023;68(4):302-314
pages 302-314 views
The adjuvant effect of polymuramil, a NOD1 and NOD2 agonist, differs when immunizing mice of different inbred lines with nonstructural hepatitis C virus (Flaviviridae: Hepacivirus)proteins and is synergistically enhanced in combination with pyrogenalum, a TLR4 agonist
Lesnova E.I., Masalova O.V., Permyakova K.Y., Demidova N.A., Valuev-Elliston V.T., Ivanov A.V., Kushch A.A.

Introduction. Hepatitis C is a liver disease with high chronicity, the cause of cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. The main obstacle to controlling hepatitis C is the lack of vaccines.

The aim of the work was to compare the immunogenic activity of nonstructural recombinant proteins NS3, NS4 and NS5B of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as components of a subunit candidate vaccine and to analyze the adjuvant properties of two available commercial drugs, polymuramil and pyrogenalum.

Materials and methods. BALB/c, DBA/2J and C57BL/6 mice were immunized with nonstructural proteins without adjuvants or with polymuramyl (NOD1 and NOD2 agonist) and pyrogenalum (TLR-4 agonist). The activity of antibodies was determined in ELISA, the cellular response – by antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation and by production of IFN-γ in vitro.

Results. Recombinant proteins showed different immunogenicity. NS4 induced antibodies more efficiently than NS3 and NS5B. Significant differences were found in the immune response of three inbred lines mice: the level of IFN-γ in BALB/c and DBA/2J mice induced by NS5B protein was 30 times higher than in C57Bl/6 mice. In contrast, the induction of antibodies in BALB/c mice was lower than in C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J. Polymuramil did not increase the humoral response to NS5B and enhanced the cellular response only in C57BL/6 mice. The combined use of polymuramil with pyrogenalum significantly increased both the humoral and cellular response of mice to all recombinant HCV proteins.

Conclusion. Different immunogenic properties and different functions of recombinant non-structural HCV proteins indicate the feasibility of their combined inclusion in subunit vaccines. It was established for the first time that immunization with HCV proteins with a complex adjuvant (polymuramyl + pyrogenalum) has a synergistic effect, significantly exceeding the effect of each of them separately.

Problems of Virology. 2023;68(4):315-326
pages 315-326 views
Experience with the use of pharmacopoeial reference material for the activity of measles vaccine
Binyatova A.S., Yunasova T.N., Volkova R.A., Butirskiy A.Y., Ilyasova T.N., Sarkisyan K.А., Movsesyants A.A.

Introduction. Due to the increased incidence of measles in Russia and in many other regions of the world, vaccines for the measles prevention are especially in demand. Ensuring the quality of the measles vaccine for effective disease prevention is within the scope of the tasks of the state policy of our country.

Objective. Evaluation of the experience of using a pharmacopoeial standard material of measles vaccine activity for measurement of the specific activity of the measles virus in vaccines with a measles component that are used in the Russian Federation for measles prevention.

Materials and methods. The object of the study was the Pharmacopoeia reference material (PRM) of the activity of the live measles vaccine of series 10. The activity of PRM was analyzed when determining the specific activity of the measles, mumps-measles and combined vaccines for the prevention of measles, rubella and mumps, as well as based on the materials of the summary protocols for the production of these vaccines.

Results. The titer of the measles virus in the PRM for each determination of the specific activity of the measles virus in vaccines in the Scientific Centre for Expert Evaluation of Medicinal Products in 2021–2022, as well as according to the summary production protocols, was within the boundaries of the certified value (4.63 ± 0.5) lgTCD50/0.5 ml, and the test results met the acceptance criteria in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documentation. During the observation period, the average value of the PRM titer (4.61 lgTCD50/0.5 ml) practically did not differ compared to the average value of the certified characteristics of the PRM, the standard deviation of the mean value of the measles virus titer in the PRM did not exceed 0.15 lgTCD50, which indicated the stability of the analytical work at the enterprise and in IC.

Conclusion. The data obtained indicate the stable activity of PRM, the correctness of the determination of the measles virus titer in the vaccination dose of the vaccine, and the validity of the method for monitoring the specific activity of the measles virus in vaccines.

Problems of Virology. 2023;68(4):327-333
pages 327-333 views
Adaptation of african swine fever virus (Asfarviridae: Asfivirus)to growth in the continuous culture PPK-66b cells by the method of accelerated passaging
Vlasova N.N., Chernykh O.Y., Krivonos R.A., Verkhovsky O.A., Aliper T.I., Anoyatbekova A.M., Zhukova E.V., Kucheruk O.D., Yuzhakov A.G., Gulyukin M.I., Gulyukin A.M.

Introduction. African swine fever virus (ASF) is a large, enveloped virus with an icosahedral capsid morphology and a double-stranded DNA genome ranging in size from 170 to 190 kb. The replication cycle proceeds in two phases, the early phase lasting 4–6 hours and the late 8–20 hours after infection. The adaptation of the ASF virus to growth in continuous cell lines makes efficient and reliable genetic analysis and more accurate interpretation of its results.

Objective. Adaptation of a new isolate of the ASF virus to growth in a continuous cell line by the method of accelerated passages and preliminary genetic analysis of the resulting strain.

Materials and methods. For virus isolation and passaging of the ASF virus, a porcine leukocyte cell culture (PL) and continuous cell cultures of porcine origin (ST, PK, PPK-66b) were used with Eagle MEM and HLA essential media with 10% porcine or fetal serum.

Results. The article presents data on the isolation and analysis of the changes in the reproductive properties of a new African swine fever (ASF) virus isolate in the process of adaptation to growth in a continuous piglet kidney cell culture clone b (PPK-66b). The current state of the problem of cultivation of the ASF virus, the features of its reproduction, and the basis of the genetic differentiation of its isolates are described in detail. Understanding the uniqueness of the nature of the ASF virus determined the approaches to the processes of its cultivation and adaptation. In this regard, the results of studies of cultural properties, and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of 6 genes of the new isolate, as well as phylogenetic analysis of these genes with already known strains and isolates of the ASF virus are presented.

Conclusion. A new strain obtained in the process of cell adaptation of ASVF/Znaury/PPK-23 ASF virus by the accelerated passaging method reaches a high level of reproduction in 72 hours with an accumulation titer of 7.07 lg HAdE50/cm3. Primary genetic analysis allowed to establish the main phylogenetic relationships of the newly isolated strain with previously known variants of the current ASF panzootic.

Problems of Virology. 2023;68(4):334-342
pages 334-342 views


Characteristics of self-regulation of the epidemic process of infection caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (Herpesviridae: Lymphocryptovirus, HHV-4)
Solomay T.V., Semenenko T.A., Akimkin V.G.

Introduction. Among the available scientific literature, there are no publications addressing processes of self-regulation in the parasite-host population systems with reference to chronic infections, including the infection caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV infection).

The aim of the study is to assess manifestations of the epidemic process of chronic EBV infection through the lens of the basic tenets of the theory of self-regulation of parasitic systems.

Materials and methods. The study was performed using data from scientific publications selected from such database sources as Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CyberLeninka, RSCI, etc. The list of analyzed publications included published articles of the authors of this study, reporting the results of the retrospective epidemiological analysis of the incidence of infectious mononucleosis in Russia in general and in Moscow in particular, as well as the results of the laboratory tests regarding the detection frequency of specific antibodies to EBV proteins.

Results. The chronic course of EBV infection promotes a close long-term interaction between the pathogen and the host. The genetic variability of the pathogen and the functions of specific and nonspecific human immune defense systems play a key role in the interaction between two heterogeneous populations and underlie their phasal self-transformation. A variety of social and natural factors (adverse chemical, physical, biological, climatic impacts, etc.) trigger the reactivation of chronic EBV infection, thus providing the continuous existence of additional sources of infection in the host population.

Conclusion. The analysis of the manifestations of chronic EBV infection in the context of the theory of self-regulation of parasitic systems promotes the understanding of the factors underlying the unevenness of its epidemic process. The obtained data can be adjusted for other infections having similar transmission mechanisms and virus life cycles (including other herpes infections) to map out strategies to control the epidemic process of chronic infections spread by aerosol transmission of the pathogen.

Problems of Virology. 2023;68(4):343-354
pages 343-354 views

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