Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Access granted  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Vol 44, No 1 (2023)

Cover Page

Full Issue

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription Access


The Concept of Dissipative Structures – Formulated by Whom?

Pechenkin A.A.


The concept of dissipative structures may be regarded as one of the important concepts in modern science. It is also present in philosophical literature as well as in scientific journalism. This concept is traditionally associated with the works of Ilya Prigogine and his colleagues, published in the 1970s–1980s. Recently, however, the name of Alan Turing, a major figure in the 20th century science and one of the founders of modern computer science who in 1952 published a paper on morphogenesis, began to be mentioned in connection with the notion of dissipative structures. We agree that this notion can be traced back to this paper by Turing. However, the concept of dissipative systems was formulated within the conceptual framework of Prigogine and his co-authors.

Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):9-19
pages 9-19 views

Early Studies of Ice Strength Properties for the Purposes of Icebreaker Construction in Russia

Sazonov K.E.


 Icebreaker construction that began to develop in Russia and Europe in the second half of the 19th century dictated the need for seafarers and shipbuilders to study the ice covers of the freezing waters as navigation environment. One of the most important characteristics on which the ships’ ice-breaking capabilities depend is ice strength. The problem of sea and freshwater ice strength was particularly urgent for Vice Admiral S. O. Makarov when he was putting the case for building the first Arctic icebreaker Yermak. It was for this reason that he initiated these studies. At about the same time, a renowned shipbuilder V. I. Afanasiev also came to the conclusion that it was necessary to study ice strength properties, and carried out a number of experiments together with his son. Makarov engaged A. N. Krylov, Superintendent of the Towing Tank, in the experimental data analysis. The article describes the history of, and analyzes the conclusions from, these experiments that for a long time remained the only source of data on strength properties of sea and freshwater ice.

Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):20-36
pages 20-36 views

The History of Final Stage of Handing over the Materials for “The Gold Book of the Russian Emigration” from Paris to New York (1969–1971)

Uliankina T.I.


The efforts of the Russian émigrés associated with the preparation of a multivolume publication, “The Gold Book of the Russian Emigration”, for publishing can be regarded as one of the major albeit little-studied events in their life. For the Russian émigrés, this project became a point of honor as well as a kind of response to the Cold War events. The émigrés themselves regarded “The Gold Book” not only as their “answer”, “report”, or even justification before the descendants but also as their bequest to future generations. The article analyzes previously unpublished correspondence that sheds light on the circumstances of handing over the materials for “The Gold Book” that had ended up in E. A. Vechorin’s possession and, after his death in 1969, in the possession of his widow, S. I. Vechorina, from Paris to New York (1969–1971). These documents are deposited in the so-called Russian archives in the USA: the Bakhmeteff Archive of Russian and East European Culture, Columbia University (New York, NY), the Archive of Russian Academic Group in the USA (Kinnelon, NJ), and the Archive of the Tolstoy Foundation (Valley Cottage, NY).              

Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):37-55
pages 37-55 views

Towards the History of Formation and Development of the Sverdlovsk Biotelemetry Group

Vladzymyrskyy A.V.


The article discusses the main stages in the formation and the research and practical work of the Sverdlovsk Biotelemetry Group as a scientific school led by Professor V. V. Rozenblat. In the early 20th century, the development of physiology demanded fundamentally new medical and technical solutions for real-time recording of physiological data in free-moving biological objects. A new direction of medical science and technology – dynamic bioradiotelemetry – has emerged. An informal scientific association of engineers and doctors, the Sverdlovsk Biotelemetry Group, worked in Sverdlovsk from the mid-1950s through the 1970s. Its leader was Professor V. V. Rozenblat while L. S. Dombrovskii provided overall management of engineering work. From 1955 to 1960, the Group created the first reliable device for remote pulse recording via radio. The period from 1960 through 1970 was the time of the group’s highest activity and productivity. The number of its members increased to 20. More than 50 original devices, unique sensors, and transmitting and receiving devices as well as the optimal methods for capturing and recording biosignals and bioelectric currents have been developed. After 1970, the most significant achievement of the Group was the use of computer technology for automated collection and analysis of the results of bioradiotelemetry. A series of original instruments was used in the Soviet space exploration program. The Group’s efforts over the decades resulted in the substantiation of dynamic bioradiotelemetry as a set of technologies and methodologies for obtaining fundamentally new knowledge about human body functioning during various activities. A scientific basis was created for the development of space medicine and the main principles were developed for sports teams training and preparation, rehabilitation, labor regulations in various areas, and social assessment.

Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):56-78
pages 56-78 views

The History of Organization of the International System of Magnetic and Meteorological Observations in the Second Half of the 19th Century

Feklova T.Y.


The article deals with some little-studied pages from the history of the development of international cooperation in the field of meteorology. With climate being a transboundary phenomenon, the international cooperation of researchers who studied it was a natural process. The first attempts to create an international network of meteorological stations date back to the mid-18th century. The article offers unique data about the distribution of meteorological stations by countries in the mid-19th century. The author looks into the stages in the development of the international network of meteorological stations and observatories. Special attention is given to the role of the Main Physical Observatory, and the scientists who worked there – first and foremost, the Observatory’s Director, Heinrich von Wild (Genrikh Ivanovich Vilʼd) – in the formation and evolution of this network. An important event in the development of meteorology was the 1st Meteorological Congress held in Vienna in 1873. One of the outcomes of this congress was creation of the Permanent Meteorological Committee. After the 2nd International Meteorological Congress held in Rome in 1879, the International Meteorological Committee was set up to replace the Permanent Meteorological Committee. Heinrich von Wild was appointed its President. The IMC’s goals were promoting and coordinating the work of meteorologists around the world. After some modernization, the committee has existed up to this day. The article offers the data on the contacts between Russia and other countries such as the UK, the USA, and Japan in the field of meteorology. Thus, as a result of the development of contacts between Russia and the UK, a magnetic and meteorological observatory was set up in Novo-Arkhangelsk (now Sitka, Alaska). This article is based on the archival records from the Russian State Archive of the Navy.           

Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):79-98
pages 79-98 views

Postal and Electrical Communications as a Subject of Scientific and Technical Partnership between the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc Countries in the 1960s – 1980s.

Mirkin V.V.


The article examines the aspects of the interstate scientific and technical cooperation between the “socialist commonwealth” countries in the field of postal and electrical communications in the post-war period. The basic platform for this partnership was the Organization for Socialist Countries Cooperation in the Field of Electric and Postal Communications (OSS) and the most significant, large-scale projects in the field of telegraph, telephone, postal and radio communications were implemented under its auspices. Later on, the CMEA Commission for Cooperation in the Field of Electrical and Postal Communications and, in part, the International Space Communications Organization “Intersputnik” joined in the OSS’ efforts. The communication infrastructures of the socialist commonwealth countries differed in their development stages, varying in size, scale and structure, their equipment and technologies complexes, and staffing and management policies. The effective use of the telecommunication system’s international segments was a common strategic task for the socialist bloc countries and, where possible, accommodated their national interests. It is emphasized that the rapid development of technologies, prompted by the scientific and technological revolution in telecommunications, brought to the fore the issues of efficient management and operation of the international segments of the socialist states’ national communication systems: the development of unified instructions, specifications, and methodological approaches; unified automation and billing of the international network, etc. At the same time, despite its importance as an infrastructural element of the economy, the communication system had not been placed on the list of priority areas of the interstate socio-economic cooperation.

Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):99-108
pages 99-108 views

The Life and Scientific Work of a Prominent Russian Physiologist and Educator, N. K. Vereshchagin (1893–1962)

Tkachenko P.V., Nikishina N.A., Puchkov V.I.


The article is devoted to Nikolai Konstantinovich Vereshchagin, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, who belonged to the world-famous scientific school of Sechenov and Shaternikov, as well as to his colleagues and coauthors. Our objective is to examine the results of Vereshchagin’s scientific experiments in the field of nutrition physiology and metabolism, conducted together with M. N. Shaternikov and to summarize the results of the experimental studies in exercise physiology and vocational physiology, carried out by Vereshchagin together with his pupils. Special attention is given to Vereshchagin’s works on circulatory physiology during static muscular load, in particular, to the studies of static effort phenomenon, known in physiology as Linhard – Vereshchagin phenomenon. The theory of central cortical inhibition of physiological functions during physical fatigue, formulated by Vereshchagin together with his pupil V. V. Rozenblat, is explained. Vereshchagin’s biography is based on the archival records and on the recollections of his granddaughter, T. V. Viktorova, and Professor A. L. Azin, Doctor of Medical Sciences. The photographs presented in the article illustrate his personal and scientific biography and are introduced for scientific use for the first time. The facts systematized and presented in the article are important for the preservation of scientific and teaching traditions of the physiological schools in Moscow, Kursk, and Yekaterinburg.

Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):109-127
pages 109-127 views

Professor Dmitry Panov: From Aviation to Informatics

Krayneva I.A., Shilov V.V.


The article is devoted to Dmitry Yurievich Panov (1904–1975), a mathematician who in the 1930s – 1970s worked for the leading Soviet research and education institutions in the defense and civil sectors. He was one of the pioneers in the aircraft industry, creation of anti-missile defense systems, digital computing technologies and their applications, and engineering psychology. He also developed data support systems for science. Undoubtedly, these were cutting-edge projects, new forms of higher education organization and management that he intuitively felt to be significant. Being an ingenious and creative person, encyclopedically educated and erudite, Panov had no difficulties in engaging in new areas of activities and, even if he had not made major breakthroughs in these areas, he became very well aware of new challenges and tried to organize the teams that were best fit to address the respective tasks. People like him – the erudites, organizers, and communicators – are very valuable for science, being vital in creating scientific environment and atmosphere, conducive to science growth and development. If scientific society is presented as a pyramid, people like Panov would be placed in its central part, forming the link between the base and the top. Our approach to studying Panov’s biography is based on three levels of narration: personal, socioprofessional, and contextual (historical). The sources included the materials from the departmental archives, Panov’s scientific publications, and the recollections of his former colleagues at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the V. S. Semenikhin Research Institute of Automatic Equipment.       

Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):128-151
pages 128-151 views

The Museums of Science and Technology: From a Collection of Technical Innovations to Historico-Technical Collections

Platonova M.V.


The emergence of the museums of science and technology is associated with many factors such as the Industrial Revolution, the interest in collecting, and society’s demand for education and training. As a rule, museums were created based on already assembled collections or by organizing major exhibitions in order to collect relevant objects. The article discusses the history and goals of establishing two largest science and technology museums in Europe, the Kensington Museum (Science Museum) in London and the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers in Paris, and the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow, whose creation was influenced by the aforementioned European museums. The article also analyzes the shifts in the composition of collections in these three museums, depending on their maturity, and shifts in the attitude towards “aging” items. Based on museum catalogs and other published sources, the development of museum collections is traced from the predominance of new technologies to the formation of historico-technical collections.

Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):152-173
pages 152-173 views
pages 174-191 views

Sinkevich, G. I. The Mathematicians from the Petersburg Side (St. Petersburg, 2022), ISBN 978-5-9227-1199-9

Polyakhova E.N.
Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):192-195
pages 192-195 views

Books in Brief

Shleeva M.V.
Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):196-198
pages 196-198 views
pages 199-207 views

Round Table “Overcoming Positivism: Experience and Strategies of Historians of Science”

Gorokhovskaya E.A.
Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):208-212
pages 208-212 views
pages 213-217 views

8th Scientific School for Young Researchers “Formal and Informal Institutions in the Development of Science”

Sinelnikova E.F., Zakharchuk P.A.
Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):218-222
pages 218-222 views

Events in Brief

of the Voprosy Istorii Estestvoznaniia i Tekhniki journal E.O.
Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):223-225
pages 223-225 views

Natalia Sergeyevna Yermolayeva (11.I.1940 – 15.IV.2022)

of the Voprosy Istorii Estestvoznaniia i Tekhniki journal E.O.
Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 2023;44(1):226-228
pages 226-228 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies