Fiziologiâ čeloveka

The purpose of this journal is to promote the integration of theories, methods, and research in human physiology. The journal publishes original studies on brain function and its disturbances, including neural mechanisms subserving perception, learning, memory, emotion, and language. Human Physiology provides a forum for many physiological areas, such as respiration, circulation, the blood system, motor functions, and digestion, as well as sport and occupational physiology. All kinds of papers on environmental physiology, including adaptation to extreme (polar zone, desert) and new (space) external conditions, are encouraged. Each year, from one to three numbers of the journal are dedicated to the broad consideration of a selected problem (e.g., mechanisms of adaptation to natural factors or development of the brain functions of children). The editorial board is highly interested in the cooperation of scientists from all countries and accepts manuscripts submitted in English.

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Vol 49, No 3 (2023)

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Words Listening Related Electroencephalography Spectrum Perturbations in Normally Developing Children and Sensory Alalia Children
Nacharova M.A., Nacharov D.V., Pavlenko V.B.

The analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) event related spectrum perturbations in 23 normally developing and 23 sensory alalia children of age between 4 and 10 years old during listening to nouns is conducted. In EEG θ-frequency range of healthy children, synchronization was detected in the frontal, central, and temporal leads, and desynchronization was found in most leads in children with sensory alalia. Intergroup differences in the reactivity of the EEG θ-range reached the level of statistical significance in C4 lead. In the α‑range, EEG desynchronization was observed in typically developing children, and synchronization was observed in children with sensory alalia. Differences in the α-activity power reached the level of statistical significance in leads C3, F3, P3, O1. An EEG θ-band synchronization decrease during words listening in children with sensory alalia may reflect an impairment of retrieving words from memory and less emotional involvement in the speech perception process, while the absence of α-activity desynchronization in the central leads is a impairment of the functioning of sensorimotor neural networks, involved in the speech perception and generation. The revealed features of EEG reactivity are important for understanding the central speech perception mechanisms in normal children, as well as in children with disorders such as sensory alalia.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):5-12
pages 5-12 views
Assessment of the Emotional Sphere of Children with Typical Development and Autism Spectrum Disorders Based on an Interdisciplinary Approach
Frolova O.V., Kleshnev E.A., Grigorev A.S., Filatova Y.O., Lyakso E.E.

The aim of the study is to reveal the features of the emotional sphere of children with typical development (TD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using the developed interdisciplinary methodological approach. The methodology includes two blocks – information about the development of the child (questionnaires for parents) and testing the child, containing tasks aimed at studying the manifestation of the emotional state in the characteristics of voice, speech, facial expressions, behavior and recognition by children of the emotional states of other people by voice and facial expression. The participants of the study were 70 children: 50 with TD and 20 with ASD. An audio and video recording of the speech, facial expressions and behavior of children during testing was made. Normative data were obtained – scores on questionnaires and scales, the results of psychophysiological testing of children. Differences between children with TD and ASD were determined according to the scales of the questionnaires: general information about development, the emotional sphere, additional information about child’s behavior; by scores in the test tasks for recognition and manifestation of emotions by children. The conducted study is the first step in the development of new fundamental approaches to the diagnosis, rehabilitation and education of children with atypical development using methods for automatically recognizing children’s emotional states by vocalizations, speech and facial expression.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):13-22
pages 13-22 views
Speech Understanding in Primary Schoolchildren with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Its Relationship with EEG Characteristics. Part I
Davydova E.Y., Salimova K.R., Davydov D.V., Pereverzeva D.S., Mamokhina U.A., Danilina K.K., Tyushkevich S.A., Gorbachevskaya N.L.

The article discussed ASD heterogeneity in terms of the severity of autistic manifestations, cognitive and speech abilities in children with different levels of functioning. We present results of a study of speech understanding at the level of phonology, vocabulary, morphosyntax and discourse in primary schoolchildren with ASD. The study revealed correlations between the severity of autistic manifestations of a socio-communicative nature and non-verbal IQ with various aspects of speech understanding. Comparison of the correlations in the subgroups of children with different levels of functioning revealed differences between the subgroups, indicating different mechanisms of disorders. The differences of the spectral characteristics of the EEG in children with ASD compared with the age norm, and characteristics in the studied subgroups are shown. We revealed differences in EEG spectral characteristics between subgroups with ASD with different levels of functioning: the subgroup with less pronounced disorders is characterized by a higher index of β2-activity, while the subgroup with more pronounced disorders – by a higher index of slow-wave activity.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):23-33
pages 23-33 views
Oculomotor Referents of Reading Activity in Children with Dyslexia Aged 9–11
Oganov S.R., Kornev A.N.

The problem of printed text processing impairments in dyslexics is of current interest but not well developed. The integration of the activity approach and eye-tracking methods provides us the opportunity to manage the system structural and functional analysis the reading as an complex activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the oculomotor behavior as referent of mental actions performed in the process of reading a written text by children with dyslexia. The study of the oculomotor behavior during a text reading in 9–11year children with dyslexia was carried out. An eye movements during the text reading were recorded by means of eye-tracker. All participants were presented two kinds of texts: two expository texts and two narrative texts. The fixation’s number and duration and regressive saccade number and duration was registered; the distribution of regressive saccade with different amplitudes (very short, short, medium and long) were analyzed. Statistical analysis of data revealed the significant between group distinctions in all gaze movements measures. These data proved that children with dyslexia have reading activity disfunction both on the lexical and propositional and semantic levels.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):34-41
pages 34-41 views
The Development of Various Speech Components and Their Relations with the State of the Brain Executive Functions in Senior Preschool Age
Zakharova M.N., Agris A.R.

The brain executive functions (EF) are crucial for various aspects of childrens’ development, as they stipulate control of cognitive processes and behavior. Speech development is one of the most important goals of preschool age and a defining predictor of successful school education. Both classical and contemporary studies stress relations between the given functions. In order to achieve an in-depth comprehension of the relations we have deepened a comparative neuropsychological research by means of complemented speech functions assessment (phonological process, verbal memory, motor program sequencing, grammatical and lexical speech design, planning of utterance) and conducted it targeting children aged 5–6 (n = 61, average age – 5.67 ± 0.33 y.) and 6–7 (n = 117, average age – 6.67 ± 0.29 y.). The research has revealed age-specific differences of the given age groups (verbal memory (р ≤ 0.002), comprehension of logical grammatical constructions (р < 0.001), lexical (р = 0.031) and grammatical (р = 0.008) speech design, planning of utterance (р < 0.001)). A coherency of speech and the state of EF development increases from 5–6 to 6–7 years old and is evident in various aspects of coherent speech (planning of utterance and its grammatical and, to a lesser degree, lexical speech design), verbal memory and verbal logical thinking; in phonological processing, motor program sequencing and comprehension of logical grammatical constructions, however, it is less evident as it is related to particular indexes, but still exists. The following research findings can be used to further voluntary regulated speech development and correction programs targeting senior preschoolers, as well as to develop voluntary regulation and control incorporating various speech components.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):42-51
pages 42-51 views
Neurophysiological Characteristics of “Transferring” the Metaphorical Meaning of Images Into Original Titles
Nagornova Z.V., Galkin V.A., Shemyakina N.V.

In the ERP study we aimed to find differences between creating titles for artistic images distinguishing by their meaning and stylistics. Thirty six adolescents (16 m; 20 f. Mean age: 15.9 ± 1.1 years) took part in two studies. Images from three categories – “cartoons”, “plot sketches”, “paintings” – full of metaphors and symbols were used as the stimuli. We considered creating titles for “cartoons” and “plot sketches” of modern artists as convergent creative task based on guessing of artists thought, at the same time the task – creating the titles for “paintings” was considered by us as more open and divergent creative task. During creating titles ERP’s amplitude for the “plot sketches” vs “cartoons” was higher in parietal-occipital and frontal, central, parietal areas on intervals 116–208 and 492–656 ms respectively. During creating titles for the paintings in the author’s style vs realistic paintings differences in ERP’s amplitude were found in occipital areas (152–264 ms), frontal and occipital areas bilateral (208–440 ms) and in frontal, temporal, central, parietal areas with maximum in the left hemisphere (544–600 ms). Late positive wave with different latency, was found in two studies – “plot sketches” vs “cartoons”(492–656 ms) and – “author’s style” vs realistic images (544–600 ms) and suggested to be connected with the extraction and analysis of the metaphorical meaning and symbols in the images for creating of the verbal interpretation (title). Only in performing a convergent creative task (closely related to the interpretation of the artist’s idea), finding the answer was accompanied by a smaller amplitude of late differences in the interval of 1300–1650 ms (more than 1500 ms before the moment when the answer was marked as have been found), while there were no significant differences between finding and not finding the answer in the second study. With the same task and in the conditions of finding/not finding the answer, we assumed that in the first study a process of comparing one’s own ideas with a certain desired (laid down by the author) meaning, that was expressed more strongly than in the second study, was needed.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):52-66
pages 52-66 views
Event-Related Potentials of the Human Brain During the Comparison of Visual Stimuli
Nikishena I.S., Ponomarev V.A., Kropotov J.D.

The aim of the investigation was to study the features of the brain activity when comparing visual stimuli under conditions of delayed motor response. Event-related potentials (ERP) were studied in 84 healthy subjects in a three-stimulus test, the first two stimuli were a comparison pair, and the third stimulus triggered a motor response. After presentation of the second stimulus ERP were recorded: a complex of two waves with occipital (Oz, most pronounced in the interval 100–150 ms) and posterior temporal localization (P7, P8, 190–270 ms); negative oscillation in the frontal regions (Fz, 240–300 ms) and positive oscillation in the parietal regions (Pz, 270–450 ms). Brain responses differ in amplitude in case of match and discrepancy of visual stimuli. The article discusses the physiological meaning of these waves and their differences under two conditions.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):67-77
pages 67-77 views
The Involvement of Broca’s Area and Its Right-Hemispheric Homologue in Acquiring Abstract and Concrete Semantics: Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation Study
Gnedykh D.S., Blagovechtchenski E.D., Kostromina S.N., Mkrtychian N.A., Shtyrov Y.Y.

The study compared effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of Broca’s area and of its right-hemispheric homologue on the acquisition of novel concrete and abstract words. Word/concept acquisition was achieved through reading sets of sentences, which incorporated novel words, gradually revealing their meaning through context. Before the learning session, a 15-minute anodal or cathodal stimulation of one of the target areas was applied. Lexical decision task was used to assess the learning outcomes immediately after the learning session and 24 hours later. The results showed a larger number of correct responses after right-hemispheric tDCS, in comparison with that of Broca’s area in the left hemisphere. These results suggest that the right-hemispheric counterpart of Broca’s areas is involved in the processing and acquisition of new concrete and abstract semantics. Furthermore, they demonstrate facilitatory effects of tDCS on the processes of overnight consolidation of newly formed word memory traces.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):78-86
pages 78-86 views
The Impact of Visual Estimates of Talker-to-Listener Distance on Fundamental Frequency in Noise
Lunichkin A.M., Gvozdeva A.P., Andreeva I.G.

Lombard speech is an involuntary adaptive changes in voicing under the influence of noise. In the current work we examine the relationship between involuntary auditory-speech control, common for the Lombard speech, and voluntary control of phonation which occurs as a result of the visual estimation of the distance to the listener. Fundamental frequencies (F0) were estimated in 9 Russian normally hearing female speakers aged 20–35 years. An increase in F0 was obtained when the communicative conditions became more complex in both increase in surrounding background noise level and growth of talker-to-listener distance cases. In quiet and in noise of 60 and 72 dB the increase in talker-to-listener distance led to F0 increments of 14, 18 and 15 Hz, which did not differ significantly from each other (p > 0.05, n = 288). When the communicative distance held constant, babble noise of different levels led to significantly different values of ΔF0: for 1 m distance – 14 and 32 Hz (p < 0.001, n = 288), and for 4 m – 18 and 33 Hz (p < 0.001, n = 288), respectively. The data obtained evidence independent and additive impact of noise and communicative distance on phonation.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):87-95
pages 87-95 views
Continuous Theta-Burst Stimulation of the Primary Motor Cortex Induces Specific Influence on Novel Vocabulary Acquisition in Different Learning Environments
Perikova E.I., Blinova E.N., Andriushchenko E.A., Blagovechtchenski E.D., Shcherbakova .V., Shtyrov Y.Y.

The primary motor cortex takes part in various stages of language learning accompanied by human motor activity. However, previous studies of causal relationships between the activation of primary motor cortex and efficiency of language tasks reveal contradictory results, likely due to diverging learning environments and specific movement patterns required by different experimental designs. The goal of this research was to comprehensively investigate the effect of continuous theta-burst magnetic stimulation (cTBS) of the primary motor cortex on the acquisition of new words while modulating the learning environment and the motor response during the learning process. Following cTBS of the primary motor cortex or control conditions (sham and active control cTBS), the subjects (n = 96) completed a novel word learning task, which involved associating visually presented objects with spoken word forms using a virtual reality (VR) or conventional computer monitor environment. In each environment, the subjects were exposed to eight novel words embedded into questions about visual stimulus properties in order to prompt novel associations. Responses to these questions could be performed either by distal or by proximal hand movements. The outcome of the word acquisition was measured using a free recall task immediately after the training and on the next day. The results showed significant differences in the success of recalling new words immediately after the learning session and on the next day only in those subjects who received cTBS of the primary motor cortex; furthermore, this effect was specific to proximal movements in both learning environments. The results suggest that the motor cortex is directly involved in acquiring novel vocabulary during active interaction with the learning material.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):96-105
pages 96-105 views
Differentiation of the Functional Systems of Speech and Language and the Study of the Differences of the Neural Networks That Support Them
Malanchuk I.G., Orlov V.A., Kartashov S.I., Malakhov D.G.

The paper deals with the problem of differentiation of human speech and language systems. Based on the modern ideas in the field of speech psychology, speech study, intonology, the concept of units (forms) of speech as non-linguistic phenomena is formed. These phenomena function as translators of illocutionary meanings in human communication, which mostly are communicative and social goals, as well as the quality of social relations. To support the concept of “Speech vs. Language”, the results of an fMRI study conducted on a sample collection of adults are presented. The differences between the neural networks of the human brain that provide the perception of natural forms of oral speech having the same pragmasemantic content – the actual speech and the minimal structure of speech-language signals are established. Due to the data obtained, the prospects of research related to the analysis of functional connectivity in the structures of two types of networks, as well as with the sequential complication of the speech and language components of the statement and the presentation of multimodal multilevel natural speech-communicative stimuli are discussed. The analysis of the differences between the processes and neural networks of speech and language is important for the development of speech synthesis technologies, diagnostic and communicative artificial intelligence.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):106-116
pages 106-116 views
Fronto-Parietal Patterns of Delta and Beta EEG Oscillations as Correlates of the Conditions of Creativity Testing
Razumnikova O.M.

Recently, much attention has been paid to the mechanism of cooperation between the fronto-parietal system and the default system, since their “pre-tuning” at rest and the subsequent dynamics of functional interaction are associated with an individual variety of strategies for performing tasks while creativity testing. To study the EEG correlates of such strategies, we analyzed the regional specificity of ∆- and β-oscillations in the resting-state and compared them with the results of testing of creativity and intelligence in 37 university students (18 ± 1.1 years; 27 women and 10 men). The indicators of originality of responses when testing creativity were calculated using the databases we created earlier for the subtests “Circles”, “Incomplete figures”, “Unusual use of ordinary objects” and an expert assessment of the originality of sentences made up of words belonging to distant semantic categories. The verbal and figurative components of intelligence were assessed according to the Amthauer intelligence structure subtests. Using the cluster analysis of the listed indicators of creativity and intelligence, we identified two groups of study participants: one (GRKIQ) was characterized by a combination of higher values of intelligence and originality of answers in those tasks where it was required to reject stereotypical ideas while limiting the time for their search, and the other (GRK) – relatively lower intelligence, but high originality of solving the problem in terms of testing creativity with a variety of stimuli and without time limits. These two clusters differed in the regional organization of the power of the ∆- and β2-rhythms and in the correlation patterns of these rhythms: GRKIQ is represented by wide-spread high-frequency β-activity and its correlation with low-frequency biopotentials in the frontal cortex whereas GRK is characterized by cortical mosaic of the β2-activity with its diffusely distributed correlations with the ∆-rhythm by the exception of the anterior frontal areas. The detected effects can be considered as a “pre-tuning” to the strategy of “intelligent” search for an original answer under conditions of resistance to fixation on a stereotyped idea in the GRKIQ or a solution based on a spontaneous search for distant associations in the GRK.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):117-125
pages 117-125 views


Encephalopathy of Prematurity: Invisible Cause of the Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders
Palchik А.B.

The article explores a relatively new concept in pediatrics, neonatology and neurology – encephalopathy of prematurity (EoP). The development of understanding of the term “encephalopathy” itself is considered. It is shown that the state occurs in premature babies predominantly in the middle of pregnancy, and may be caused by neuroinflammation, impaired oligodendrocytes maturation, hypomyelination, cerebral cortex volume reduction. EoP represents a sofisticated brain damage in a preterm baby involving gray matter, especially interneurons (axonal-neuronal disease), non-cystic leukomalacia (microglia activation) with nonspecific manifestation in neonatal period, and cognitive and behavioral disorders in early childhood. Possible mechanisms of early intervention, EoP targeted therapy, and its consequences in later childhood are discussed.

Fiziologiâ čeloveka. 2023;49(3):126-133
pages 126-133 views


pages 134-136 views

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