Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana

Журнал Известия РАН. Физика атмосферы и океана публикует оригинальные научные и обзорные статьи по актуальным вопросам физики земной атмосферы и гидросферы и теории климата.

Журнал освещает современные исследования физических процессов, происходящих в атмосфере и океане и определяющих климат, погоду и их изменения. Эти исследования имеют практические приложения. Журнал также уделяет внимание дискуссии теоретических и экспериментальных результатов, полученных в таких областях физики атмосферы и океана как динамика газовых и водных сред, взаимодействие атмосферы с океаном и земной поверхностью, теория турбулентности, тепловой баланс и радиационные процессы, дистанционное зондирование и оптика обеих сред, естественные и антропогенные изменения климата и состояние атмосферы и океана.

Журнал публикует статьи по методам исследований, используемым в обеих средах, текущую научную информацию о российских и зарубежных событиях в физике атмосферы и океана, труды конференций, книжные рецензии и статьи о ведущих личностях в данной области. Авторами журнала и членами его редколлегии являются ведущие ученые России и СНГ.

Журнал представляет интерес для научных работников, аспирантов и студентов.

Журнал является рецензируемым и входит в Перечень ВАК для опубликования работ соискателей ученых степеней. С 2008 г. входит в систему РИНЦ.

Журнал основан в 1965 году.

ISSN Print: 1023-6317

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Vol 59, No 3 (2023)

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Symmetric Stability of Vertical Baroclinic Vortices with a Warm Core
Kurgansky M.V.

An attempt has been made to relate the morphological characteristics of intense convective vortices, such as waterspouts and dust devils, to their hydrodynamic stability. The symmetric stability of cyclostrophically balanced vertical baroclinic vortices, whose radius of maximum wind depends on height, is considered. It shows the stability of narrow vortices, nearly cylindrical at the bottom, with a radius that then increases with height at an increasing rate and becomes infinite at a finite level above the Earth’s surface. On the contrary, wider conical vortices satisfy the necessary condition of instability, and it is hypothesized that this partly explains the more diffuse, disorganized nature of this kind of dust devils. The possibility of taking into account the general rotation in the problem is considered.

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):251-264
pages 251-264 views
Variability of Jet Streams in the Atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere in Recent Decades (1980–2021)
Bezotecheskaya Е.А., Chkhetiani О.G., Mokhov I.I.

Based on the reanalysis data quantitative estimates of the kinetic energy of the high-altitude jet streams of the Northern Hemisphere (EK JS NH) and its changes in the annual cycle and interannual variability for the period 1980–2021 were obtained under different conditions for the minimum wind speed Vm in the JS area. Adequate estimates are made for the share of the total kinetic energy of the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere associated with JS (P JS). The share of the volume of atmospheric layers in the JS area in the NH in the total analyzed atmospheric layer of 500–100 hPa (PV JS) was also estimated. Significant changes were noted in summer including significant weakening trends of EК, P and PV in July and August at Vm ≥ 20 and Vm ≥ 30 m/s. In winter significant changes were noted only for PV – a decreasing trend at Vm ≥ 20 and Vm ≥ 30 m/s. Seasonal features of JS connection with El Niño phenomena are noted which are most significantly manifested from January to April.

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):265-274
pages 265-274 views
Submeso Wave-Like Structures in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Their Parameters Measured with the Help of Sodar in Moscow Region
Zaitseva D.V., Kallistratova M.A., Luyluykin V.S., Kouznetsov R.D., Kuznetsov D.D., Vazaeva N.V.

The paper presents study of the parameters of wave-like structures based on the data of long-term continuous sodar monitoring of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Submesoscale internal gravity waves (IGWs) of non-orographic origin trapped in a stably stratified ABL (SBL) are considered. Statistical data on the parameters of two classes of IGWs are presented: internal gravity-shear waves (IGSWs) of the Kelvin-Helmholtz billow (KHB) type and buoyancy waves (BW). Identification and classification of IGWs was carried out by the visual analysis of sodar echograms. The measurements carried out in the Moscow region were used. The seasonal and diurnal variability of the frequency of registration of waves of both classes were studied, the values of the parameters of the observed waves were analyzed, and the ranges and average values of these quantities were compared.

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):275-285
pages 275-285 views
Baroclinic Model of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot
Suetin B.P., Zhmur V.V., Chkhetiani O.G.

The paper proposes a quasi-geostrophic baroclinic model of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot as a localized eddy formation in a continuously stratified rotating atmosphere under the action of a horizontal shear flow in the f-plane approximation. On the basis of the theory of ellipsoidal vortices, an analytical relationship is obtained between the geometric dimensions of the vortex, the potential vorticity of the vortex core, and the characteristics of the background flow. Measurements of a number of characteristics of both the vortex and the background current in the Voyager 1 (1979), Galileo (1996), and Cassini (2000) missions were used. Based on the theory, the vertical size of the Jupiter’s Great Red Spot was calculated, which turned out to be close to the same characteristic measured in the Voyager 1 (1979) mission. Based on the theory, an e-stimate of the vertical size of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter was obtained, which is consistent with the e-xperimental data of the Voyager 1 mission (1979).

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):286-298
pages 286-298 views
Projected Changes in the Snow Cover Extent in the 21st Century in Eurasia According to Simulations with the Ensemble of Climate Models CMIP6
Parfenova M.R., Arzhanov M.M., Mokhov I.I.

The analysis of changes in the snow cover extent S in Eurasia was performed using the results of simulations with the ensemble of global climate models of the international project CMIP6 under the scenario of anthropogenic impacts SSP2-4.5 for the 21st century. Features of S variability in relation to changes in surface air temperature T in different seasons are revealed by comparison of ensemble model calculations for the “historical” scenario to CDR satellite data against the background of a general decrease in the snow cover extent in Eurasia during the contemporary warming. It is noted that the multimodel ensemble mean estimates of the sensitivity parameter dS/dT for the transitional seasons in spring and autumn can be significantly lower in absolute values than those for the individual models and those derived from the satellite data. Comparison of model estimates with satellite observation data showed that the models generally reproduce the observed variations in the snow cover area in Eurasia, while variations in the area may be underestimated for individual models. According to ensemble model calculations, the rate of snow cover reduction in Eurasia in the second half of the XXI century decreases compared to the first half of the XXI century for all seasons. At the same time, the maximum values of snow cover extent reduction rate in Eurasia are inherent in transitional seasons – autumn and spring.

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):299-308
pages 299-308 views
Methane Emission from Lakes in the North of Western Siberia
Kazantsev V.S., Krivenok L.A., Dvornikov Y.A., Lomov V.A., Sabrekov A.F.

The paper presents the results of field measurements of methane fluxes into the atmosphere from thermokarst lakes located on the Russian Federation territory on the three key sites: foothills of the Polar Urals, coast of the Kara Sea and the northwestern part of the Yamal Peninsula. A total of 13 lakes were studied and about 500 methane fluxes were measured by the floating chamber method. The results showed most of the fluxes does not exceed 8 mg CH4 m–2 h–1. For more significant values, a statistically significant correlation with the wind speed was revealed, which largely determines the intensity of gas exchange on the “water-atmosphere” boundary. The exceptions are measurements in zone of lake methane seeps. For most lakes, the greatest scatter of measured fluxes was observed in the shallow part. The diurnal dynamics of methane fluxes was approximated by a sinusoidal function. For the lakes presented in the work, the range of emission assessment is 0.23–775.38 g CH4 h–1. Obtained results are important material for estimating regional methane emission from the surface of thermokarst lakes in the tundra zone.

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):309-321
pages 309-321 views
Comparison of СO Content in the Atmosphere of St. Petersburg According to Numerical Modelling and Observations
Nerobelov G.M., Timofeyev Y.M., Smyshlyaev S.P., Foka S.C., Imhasin H.H.

Due to the increase in CO2 content in the Earth’s atmosphere, which is highly dependent on anthropogenic emissions of CO2, quality of emission estimation should be improved. Advanced experiment-based methods of the CO2 anthropogenic emission estimation are built on solution of an inverse problem using highly-accurate measurements of CO2 content and numerical models of transport and chemistry in the atmosphere. The accuracy of such models greatly determines errors of the emission estimations. In a current study temporal variations of column-average CO2 content in an atmospheric layer from surface to the height of ~70–75 km (XCO2) in the Russian megapolis of St. Petersburg during Jan 2019–Mar 2020 simulated by WRF-Chem model and measured by IR Fourier-transform spectrometer Bruker EM27/SUN are compared. The research has demonstrated that the WRF-Chem model simulates well the observed temporal variation of XCO2 in the area of St. Petersburg (correlation coefficient of ~0.95). However, using CarbonTracker v2022-1 data as chemical boundary conditions, the model overestimates XCO2 relative to the observations significantly during almost the whole period of investigation – systematic difference and standard deviation of the difference are 4.2 and 1.9 ppm (1 and 0.5%). A correction of the chemical boundary conditions which is based on analysis of a relation between near-surface wind direction and XCO2 variation notably decreases the systematic difference between the modelled and observed data (almost by a factor of 2). The XCO2 variation by the observations and modelling with uncorrected chemical boundary conditions are in a better agreement during vegetation season. Probably this is related to the compensation of the systematic difference by inaccuracies in estimated biogenic contribution. Hence, the reason of the still existing mean difference between the modelled and observed data can be inaccuracies in setting chemical boundary conditions for upper troposphere and in estimating how biosphere influences CO2 content.

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):322-335
pages 322-335 views
Analysis of Long-Term Measurements of Tropospheric Ozone at the SPBU Observational Site in Peterhof
Virolainen Y.A., Ionov D.V., Polyakov A.V.

Tropospheric ozone (TO) is one of the major greenhouse gases and a toxic air pollutant. It plays a key role in various chemical and photochemical processes in the troposphere. Ozone concentrations both at surface level and in free troposphere are measured by various local and remote-sensing methods. The SPBU observational site in Peterhof (NDACC site St. Petersburg) is equipped with the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier spectrometer used for TO measurements and the Thermo Scientific Model 49i gas analyzer for monitoring surface ozone concentrations (SOC). The temporal variability of TO in the 0–8 km layer for the period from April 2009 to October 2022 and of SOC for the period from 2013 to 2021 has been analyzed. Seasonal cycle of TO and SOC is similar to that of total ozone columns, but it is shifted in time by about 1 and 1.5 months, respectively. The maximum variation of TO from the average value for the period falls on the first half of April ~+16%; a minimum of about –(12–14)% is observed from mid-October to the end of December. In the middle of summer, there is also a slight increase in the TO variation at the level of +(7–8)%. A statistically significant decrease in the TO content by 0.34 ± 0.22% per year was also obtained. Comparison of hourly averaged data on TO with synchronized data of SOC measurements revealed an increase in the correlation coefficient (up to 0.5 or more) between the two values 3–4 hours after local noon in the warm season, accompanied by an increase in SOC. The increase in correlations is in good agreement with the increase in the height of the planet boundary layer.

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):336-345
pages 336-345 views
Far Fields at Interface between an Infinitely Deep Ocean and Ice Excited by a Localized Source
Bulatov V.V., Vladimirov I.Y.

The problem of constructing asymptotics of the far wave fields that arise at the interface between ice and an infinitely deep liquid in the flow around a localized source is solved. An integral representation of the solution is obtained, and an asymptotic representation of the solution for supercritical modes of wave generation is constructed using the stationary phase method. The exact and asymptotic results are compared, and it is shown that the asymptotics far from the source make it possible to describe the amplitude-phase structure of far wave fields.

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):346-351
pages 346-351 views
About Acoustic and Electromagnetic Radiation of the Charged Droplet
Grigoryev A.I., Kolbneva N.Y., Shiryaeva S.O.

Theoretical methods of classical mathematical physics investigate the acoustic and electromagnetic radiation generated by capillary oscillations of a charged drop of an ideal uncompressible electroconductive fluid in an ideal nonconductive medium. The radiations discussed are found in first-order analytical asymptotic calculations of smallness by the dimensionless amplitude of droplet oscillations. Analytical expressions were found for the intensity of acoustic and electromagnetic radiation, which differ by several orders of magnitude and fall on different frequency bands. Acoustic radiation from liquid-droplet systems of natural origin: fogs, clouds, smogs – falls on the ultrasonic frequency range, but acoustic radiation from large raindrops goes in the area of audible sound. Electromagnetic radiation from liquid-droplet systems of natural origin goes at frequencies from tenths of megahertz to megahertz units.

Izvestiâ Akademii nauk SSSR. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2023;59(3):352-372
pages 352-372 views

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