Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine

Рецензируемый научно-практический медицинский журнал для специалистов в области судебно-медицинской экспертизы.

Главный редактор

  • Владимир Александрович Клевно, д.м.н., профессор
    ORCID: 0000-0001-5693-4054

Учредители журнала

О журнале

Журнал публикует статьи по научным направлениям: судебно-медицинская патология и гистохимия, химия, биохимия и токсикология, биология, серология, одонтология, психиатрия, антропология, цифровая криминалистика, физические науки, огнестрельное оружие и экспертиза документов, а также исследования, где наука и медицина взаимодействуют с законом. Журнал публикует оригинальные исследования, обзоры, тематические отчеты, комментарии, письма в редакцию, клинические и лабораторные наблюдения российских и зарубежных авторов на темы, релевантные аудитории в странах СНГ и всего мира. Подробнее о целях и задачах можно прочесть здесь.

Периодичность выхода публикаций

  • Ежеквартально в составе очередных выпусков (4 раза в год).
  • Непрерывно на сайте по мере одобрения каждой статьи (Online First).

Языки публикации

  • английский
  • русский
  • китайский 


Открытый доступ

  • Статьи публикуются в сети Интернет в открытом доступе (Gold Open Access) и распространяются на условиях открытой лицензии Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivates 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).


Журнал входит в Перечень рецензируемых научных изданий, рекомендованных ВАК РФ для опубликования основных результатов диссертационных исследований на соискание ученых степеней доктора и кандидата наук.

Плата за публикацию

  • Рассмотрение рукописи от авторских коллективов для публикации в журнале осуществляется на бесплатной основе (NO Article Submission Charge).
  • Публикация одобренных редакционной коллегией статей осуществляется на платной основе (Article Processing Charge / Article Publication Charge). Плата за публикацию взимается издательством только после одобрения рукописи редакционной коллегией, и не влияет на принятие решения редакционной коллегией, не влияет на качество отбора рукописей и уровень требовательности рецензентов и редакторов к авторам и произведениям.
  • Плата за публикацию может быть снижена или отменена по ходатайству авторского коллектива. Более подробная информация в разделе "Правила для авторов"


No announcements have been published.
More Announcements...

Current Issue

Vol 9, No 2 (2023)


Study of Victims of Alleged Sexual Assault
Hugar B.S., Hosahally J.S., Girish Chandra Y.P., Praveen S.

BACKGROUND: Sexual assault has been a major concern to our society. It is one of the most underreported offences to the law enforcement agencies. Such offences are multi-faceted and certain details of the offence may be hard to be unearthed even after a thorough investigation.

AIMS: To study factors associated with reporting of sexual assault cases and to correlate findings with the alleged history.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College Bangalore from January 2018 and December 2020. All victims of alleged sexual assault brought for medical examination to the Department of Forensic Medicine were interviewed through a detailed questionnaire after taking consent. Relevant information was sought from the victim and the consent from victims. Descriptive statistics for qualitative type of data were summarized using frequency and percentage.

RESULTS: 82 victims those who had come to or brought by the parents or guardian or police with alleged history of sexual assault were subjected for medical examination. All of them were females except two juveniles. Majority of the victims (n=71, 86.5%) were less than 18 years of age and were considered as juvenile / minors under Indian law. Either the victims or their parents reported to the police in most of the cases (n=76, 92.7%). In 53.65% of the cases the alleged assaults were reported to the police after three days of alleged recent sexual assault. The purpose of reporting to the police was because of honour or pride of the parents / guardian in 59.75% of the cases. It was observed that only in four cases there were positive findings of recent penetrative sexual assault in the form of fresh hymeneal tears or presence of spermatozoa in the swabs taken during genital examination.

CONCLUSION: Majority of the victims of alleged sexual assault were minors. Only 12% of them reported to the law enforcement directly without anybody persuading. More than 50% of victims presented to the hospital after 3 days of the alleged sexual assault. In most of minor victims the sexual intercourse was consented, but it was invalid since the girl below 18 years cannot consent for sexual intercourse. Majority of adult victims had consented for sexual intercourse on promise of marriage. In view of these, no physical injuries were seen on victims and positive evidence of sexual assault was detected only in 5% of cases.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):117-124
pages 117-124 views
In response to the subject of forensic diagnosis of a human death caused by exposure to low-temperature water
Chudakov A.Y., Tolmachev I.A., Khrustaleva Y.A., Bozhchenko A.P.

BACKGROUND: Examining corpses recovered from the water often poses challenges in forensic medical evaluation.

AIM: To propose a clarifying set of differential diagnostic features characteristic of a fatal cold injury in low-water temperature conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical observations, forensic examination of the corpses of patients who died from general hypothermia and drowning in ice water.

RESULTS: A complex of the most apparent diagnostic signs for the differential diagnosis of acute deep hypothermia in water from other types of hypothermia and drowning was revealed.

CONCLUSION: Morphofunctional changes in the internal organs have always been determined by hypothermia’s type, degree, and speed. The most characteristic signs of a fatal cold injury in low-water temperature conditions were determined by the state of the blood supply and the structure of organs and tissues. Pathological changes developed according to the type of edema, focal ischemia, and focal necrosis.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):125-134
pages 125-134 views
Formulation of the diagnosis, selection, and coding according to ICD-10 of the initial cause of death in fatal outcomes in patients with transplanted organs
Svishcheva P.O., Kanibolotskiy A.A.

BACKGROUND: Due to a lack of unified recommendations, difficulties often arise when making diagnoses, as well as selecting and coding according to ICD-10 of the initial cause of death in cases of fatal outcomes of patients after organ transplantation.

AIM: To offer practical recommendations on the formulation of diagnoses, selection, and coding according to ICD-10 of the initial cause of death in cases of fatal outcomes based on the experience of the pathology department at the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Medicine.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty autopsy reports of fatal outcomes in patients after organ transplantation at the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Medicine for 7 years (2016–2022) were analyzed.

RESULTS: Based on the results of the analysis, taking into account the literature data, recommendations for making diagnoses, selecting, and coding according to ICD-10 of the initial cause of death of patients after organ transplantation were formulated.

CONCLUSION: The developed recommendations on the formulation of diagnoses in patients’ death cases after organ transplantation can be used in the daily practice of forensic medical experts.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):135-145
pages 135-145 views


Use of various research methods in forensic practice to determine lifetime and age of injury: A review
Frolova O.О., Zabozlaev F.G., Klevno V.A.

From the 19th century to the present, forensic physicians have been interested in the subject of damage formation prescription. After reviewing the literature on the problem of traumatic hemorrhage prescription, it is clear that there is no single position, approach to the study of this issue, or an unambiguous time frame that accurately determines the period from injury to the victim’s death. Forensic doctors in the 19th and 21st centuries initially focused on the macroscopic picture of the injury, followed by microscopic examination. When studying micropreparations, they are guided by the cellular composition of the hemorrhage, based on previously known data, their own experience and knowledge in this field, the brief circumstances of the incident (if any are indicated in the direction of forensic histological examination), and the victim’s age. Researchers have determined approximations and developed approximate time frames for the formation of damage throughout the years, now taking into account the above characteristics and the victim’s condition during and after the injury, with the acquired experience and accumulated knowledge. However, scientists have not come to a consensus. Medicine, achievements, progress, and perseverance of scientists strive forward, involving related sciences in the study of antiquity. As a result, methods, such as molecular genetics, biophysical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical, have found use, allowing researchers to analyze cellular composition and enzymatic and hormonal changes in damaged tissues. Ultrasound is one of the instrumental methods being developed. This problem remains completely unresolved when both laboratory and instrumental methods and their combination are used.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):147-163
pages 147-163 views
Morphofunctional changes in the neuronal environment in suicide
Kislov M.A., Trusova D.S., Krupin K.N., Zhiganova M.S., Maksimov A.V.

For many years, the topic of the development of suicidal behavior has remained relevant. Every year, there are more reports of new morphological changes in brain tissue, with particular emphasis on the effects of changes and the microenvironment on the functional activity of neurons and the relationship with the development of certain mental diseases. Because morphological changes are not always visible and apparent, immunohistochemical examination for glial fibrillary acid protein might be an additional diagnostic method.

The presented literature review is an analytical evaluation of the current status of the topic of studying the morphology of macroglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and the blood–brain barrier in suicide. According to generalized data, the most characteristic localizations of changes in the development of suicidal behavior are the suture nucleus and prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. There is evidence of a correlation between the development of suicidal behavior and an increase in inflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex, a disruption in the connection between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the anterior cingulate cortex, and an indication of the involvement of the shell, striatum, preclinium, and wedge, orbitofrontal cortex in suicidal behavior formation.

When examining the causes of death, determining the characteristic morphology of suicide death can potentially constitute an evidence base for confirming or excluding factors of suicide development.

Further research is needed to form a clearer picture of the changes in relation to the practice of forensic medical examination; nonetheless, immunohistochemical analysis might be considered a potential method of evidence-based understanding suicide factors.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):165-174
pages 165-174 views
Rethinking the principles of work forensic medical experts in emergencies cases with massive human casualties
Klevno V.A., Maksimov A.V., Abramov A.S.

For many years, the topic of the participation of forensic experts in the elimination of the consequences of emergencies with a large number of human casualties has remained relevant. Every year, there are more reports about problematic issues of the organization and provision of forensic medical support in cases of mass death of people, particularly in armed conflicts.

The presented report attempts to rethink the tasks and formulate the principles of forensic medical specialists who work in emergencies, including mass death and unknown disappearances of people.

Based on international and domestic experiences, work is needed to standardize procedures and algorithms for registering primary information and identifying signs of the deceased.

Standardized work algorithms and standardized forms are important for deceased identification because they simplify and formalize the registration, description, and subsequent information sharing on unidentified dead bodies, avoiding mistakes and omissions.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):175-182
pages 175-182 views
On the issue of using the results of a virtual autopsy in criminal investigation: A review
Orakbayev A.B., Kurmangali Z.K., Begaliyev Y.N., Syrbu A.V., Begaliyev B.A.

This study discusses the legislative aspects of using virtual autopsy (virtopsy) results as evidence in criminal cases.

When reviewing the literature, several works that present algorithms for using the results of computer modeling of a corpse in the investigative process, as well as the legal aspects of using virtopsy in the field of forensic science and the description of some medical cases, were identified. It also revealed a need for more comprehensive work covering both the legal grounds for using virtopsy results during the investigation and the practical aspects of using this technology for evidence in specific categories of court hearings.

A SWOT analysis of the use of virtopsy to improve the quality of crime investigation has been performed. Based on the results of the study, the positive and negative aspects of using virtopsy in investigative actions were identified, and practical recommendations for its use in cases of sudden death, medical errors, and the preparation of an examination of an unidentified corpse were developed.

Using virtopsy results increases the validity of the conclusion in judicial practice, its use should complement the results of an autopsy, and the pictures can be attributed to drawings that can be used during investigative actions and, in the future, as evidence by attaching them to the interrogation protocol.

Furthermore, virtopsy is used when the deceased’s relatives refuse to have a pathoanatomical autopsy performed, often for religious reasons.

Using machine programming elements in computed tomography procedures will allow for a re-examination of the corpse without exhumation, determining whether death occurred due to a service error and increasing the efficiency of forensic medical examinations.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):183-192
pages 183-192 views


A rare case of diaphyseal fractures of the shin bones in a child when jumping on a trampoline. Ways to prevent expert errors using complex analysis of radiography data and case materials: A case report
Li Y.B., Vishniakova M.V., Klevno V.А.

Given the importance of childhood injuries in the structure of common problems associated with children’s health, it is important to determine the exact mechanism of fractures, particularly diaphyseal fractures of the shin bones, during the examination because the specification of the mechanism for the formation of bodily injuries leads to the actual origins of injuries and allows further development of a set of preventive measures to prevent the occurrence of these situations. Moreover, it sometimes allows the defendants to accurately distribute the burden of responsibility for what happened.

In the presented expert case, the circumstances of bodily injury described by the subject and her legal representative were inconsistent with the type and nature of fractures received while trampoline jumping and the video recording from the surveillance camera did not provide complete information about the specific conditions of injury. A detailed analysis of the results of shin bone radiography, including determining the morphological features of fractures and their nature, and a frame-by-frame study of the presented video recording.

The diaphyseal fractures of the shin bones of atypical localization for a “trampoline injury” detected in a child could serve as a source of expert errors in determining the mechanism of their occurrence; however, a thorough, comprehensive assessment of all objects for examination, such as medical documents, including X-ray data and case materials, taking into account the age-specific morphology of the bone tissue of the child, enables to determine the exact mechanism of the occurrence of fractures.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):193-199
pages 193-199 views
Experience in using computer programs as part of the bloodstain
Leonov S.V., Pinchuk P.V., Shakiryanova J.P.

Bloodstain examination is performed when it is necessary to assess the trace pattern at the scene of the incident and determine the features of the mechanism of their formation. Examining multiple blood traces is a time-consuming and lengthy process. Simultaneously, in foreign countries, it has already been partially switched to automatic mode using computer programs. The development of the computer program “Autodesk AutoCAD” in Russia has enabled the use of a specialized application, “Elcovision Forensic,” with which the location of the blood source, distance to it, and size are evaluated using marked traces of blood recorded at the scene, as well as three-dimensional models that can be built in software or used objects already built in other three-dimensional reconstruction programs.

This study presents the experience of using the computer program “Elcovision Forensic” on two expert practice examples. In both cases, according to the traces of blood recorded at the scene, it was necessary to reconstruct individual stages of the incident. In one of the cases, the possibilities of working with three-dimensional models produced from photographs of the scene are shown. In the second case, blood traces were analyzed directly from digital photographs.

The main stages of work and functions of the computer program are shown in the examples of bloodstain examinations. The use of “Elcovision Forensic” in the framework of specific examinations enabled solving of situational issues and establishing individual damage circumstances.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):201-207
pages 201-207 views
Foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of suicide attempt: a case report
Mehdiyev E.S.

One of the most common cases in practice is the possession by mentally ill and healthy people of various objects and chemicals for suicide. These observations are interesting; a sick soldier aged 21 years, with suicide intention, swallowed 32 pieces of metal nails, each of which was about 15 cm long.

Taking into account our examinations and observations, for patients with mental illness who have taken foreign bodies for suicide, the type and shape of the objects taken do not play a special role. The intellectual level of individuals who took foreign bodies to commit suicide is not satisfactory. Their actions are the product of primitive thinking.

This observation demonstrates a casuistic clinical case that miraculously did not end in death.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):209-215
pages 209-215 views


Two components of the forensic assessment process and severity of nonlife-threatening local musculoskeletal injuries: a review of the article “Controversial issues of the use of medical criteria ‘persistent loss of general working capacity’ in determining the severity of harm caused to human health”
Kulikov S.N.

In the article, the doctrine of denying a forensic medical assessment of the severity of local injuries of the musculoskeletal system, which are not life-threatening, is considered from a critical position, based on an interdisciplinary approach, without considering the influence of medical care. The article shows the inconsistency, still present among some forensic physicians, of the opinion that determining the severity of harm to health by causing nonlife-threatening injuries without the fact of a determined outcome is allegedly expressed in violation of the basic provisions of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. In the context of the topic, the author reasonably points to the two-component essence of the definition of clause 6.11, 194th order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia of 2008, dated April 24, 2008, N 194n “On approval of medical criteria for determining the severity of harm caused to human health.” The fundamental explanatory provisions of the conceptual construction of the wording of clause 6.11 are provided in criminal law and medical relations. The author showed that there were no inconsistencies between these components. The presence of a list of medical criteria for harm to health of a similar direction, as in the existing paragraph 6.11, demonstrates the objective need in the updated version of the draft order of the Ministry of Health of Russia “On approval of the procedure for determining the severity of harm caused to human health.”

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):217-230
pages 217-230 views


X anniversary international congress “Topical Issues of Forensic Medicine and Expert Practice, 2023”
Klevno V.A., Maksimov A.V., Krupina N.A., Plis S.S.

The 10th Anniversary International Congress, “Topical Issues of Forensic Medicine and Expert Practice, 2023,” was held at the Moscow Regional Research Institute on April 19–20, 2023. This article is an overview of the most important events of the Congress.

Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2023;9(2):231-240
pages 231-240 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies