Russian Journal of Physiology

Russian Journal of Physiology (p-ISSN 0869-8139, e-ISSN 2658-655X) is issued monthly and publishes the works in all fields of physiology and physiological aspects of related sciences — zoology, anatomy, histology, embryology, molecular biology, biochemistry.

The journal is peer-reviewed and is included in the VAK list of journals for publishing the works of degree candidates. Currently, the papers are indexed in the VINITI, RISC (, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and RSCI (on the Web of Science platform) databases. The papers are submitted in electronic form.

Articles are translated and published in the Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology (indexed in WoS, impact factor (2022) - 0.6).

The chief editor is a member of the RAS L.G. Magazanik

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Vol 109, No 6 (2023)

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Mechanisms of Physiological Angiogenesis
Ivanov A.N., Chabbarov Y.R.

Angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from existing vasculature to provide n-ormal tissue perfusion. Angiogenesis is also necessary for the processes of growth and regeneration. Angiogenesis attracts the attention of researchers from the position of its therapeutic regulation: enhancement can contribute to significant progress in the treatment of ischemic diseases, and inhibition is actively studied for the treatment of neoplastic diseases. Regulation of angiogenesis is impossible without accurate knowledge of its mechanism. There are two fundamental pathways for angiogenesis: sprouting angiogenesis, which is mediated by an existing vessel’s endothelial cells migration into the extracellular matrix to form a vessel in the direction of angiogenic stimuli, and intussusceptive angiogenesis, which is mediated by dividing the formed vessel into two new ones as a re-sult of the formation of a partition inside it that separates two independent lumens. This review examines the main stages of each type of physiological angiogenesis, their mechanisms and regulation.

Russian Journal of Physiology. 2023;109(6):703-722
pages 703-722 views


The Effect of the Microbiota Metabolite – Butyric Acid on Motor Coordination, Muscle Strength and the Level of Oxidative Stress in Skeletal Muscles in Mice with Dysbiosis
Yakovleva O.V., Mullakaeva A.I., Salikhzyanova A.F., Sorokina D.M., Sitdikova G.F.

According to modern concepts, the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota play an essential role in maintaining immunity, homeostasis, and, in general, the physiological functions of the host organism. Recently the positive role of the microbiota and its metabolites especially short-chain fatty acids, in the metabolism and functional activity of skeletal muscles was reported. The aim of our work was to analyze muscle strength and motor coordination in mice after injection of broad–spectrum antibiotics with simultaneous administration of a microbiota metabolite – one of the representatives of short-chain fatty acids – butyric acid. In addition, we determined the level of malondialdehyde, the concentration of total glutathione and the activity of glutathione peroxidases in the muscles of the hind limbs in mice with administration of antibiotics and butyric acid. The administration of antibiotics to adolescent mice for two weeks induced higher mortality and decrease of weight, and also caused significant changes in motor behavior, including an increase in horizontal motor activity, decrease in vertical motor activity, muscle strength, and motor coordination. A higher level of oxidative stress was found in the muscle tissues of the hind limbs of mice treated with antibiotics. At the same time, oral administration of butyric acid prevented the observed changes and improved not only behavioral disorders, but also partially reduced the level of oxidative stress. In conclusion, metabolite of normal microbiota has a positive effect on the functional and biochemical parameters of skeletal muscles in dysbiosis, which can be used to prevent loss of muscle function in various pathological conditions.

Russian Journal of Physiology. 2023;109(6):723-736
pages 723-736 views
Comparative Analysis of the Fibrosis Factors Expression in the Heart Tissue of Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Rats during Development of Chronic Renal Failure
Galagudza M.V., Bagrov A.Y., Romanova I.V., Agalakova N.I., Mikhailova E.V., Piankov А.А., Nadei O.V., Ershov I.А.

The severity of the development of uremic cardiomyopathy (UC) and fibrosis of cardiac tissue at chronic renal failure (CRF) was compared in the model experiments on male Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats of the SPF category. To induce CRF in rats, subtotal nephrectomy (NE) was performed on the left, and after 2 weeks, total nephrectomy on the right. Sham-operated (Sham) animals served as controls. 4 weeks after the second surgery, blood pressure (BP) was measured in animals, and the expression of fibrotic factors (transcription factor Fli1, pro-collagen-I, collagen-I and collagen-IV) in the tissues of heart left ventricle was evaluated by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. After NE, Sprague-Dawley rats exhibited a significant increase in systolic blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy. In Wistar rats, the difference in BP between NE and Sham animals was smaller, and the ratio of left ventricular mass to body weight did not change. Experimental CRF in Sprague-Dawley rats was accompanied by a 1.5–2.5-fold suppression of the Fli1 gene expression and a decrease in the content of Fli1 protein in the cardiac tissue, while no significant differences were observed in Wistar rats. The levels of pro-collagen-I and collagen-I in the heart of rats of both lines did not change either at the levels of transcription or translation. Such difference in development of pathological processes indicates ineffectiveness of applied NE scheme for induction of UC and investigation of pro-fibrotic processes in Wistar rats.

Russian Journal of Physiology. 2023;109(6):737-748
pages 737-748 views
Vasoactive and Neuroprotective Action of с-Jun-N-Terminal Kinases Inhibitor in Rats with Chronic Brain Hypoperfusion
Zhilyaev S.Y., Platonova T.F., Khlebnikov A.I., Schepetkin I.A., Demchenko I.T., Atochin D.N.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the vasoactive and neuroprotective effects of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase inhibitor IQ-1 (11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime) in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion caused by irreversible bilateral ligation of carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow was measured quantitatively (hydrogen clearance method) simultaneously in the parietal cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra, and striatum of the brain of awake rats. It was found that ligation of the carotid arteries caused a decrease in blood flow in the brain structures with a more pronounced decrease in the cortex (by 48% of the initial level) and with the smallest drop in the substantia nigra (by 25% of the initial level). The reduced level of blood flow persisted for 14 days of measurements. The responses of the cerebral vessels to hypercapnic probes (5% CO2) were lost during the 2-week hypoperfusion period, and the neurological status of the animals did not improve. The administration of IQ-1 (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, every 48 hours for 14 days) was accompanied by an increase in blood flow in all brain structures. The maximum increase in blood flow was observed in the striatum and the minimum in the substantia nigra. After the administration of IQ-1, the sensitivity of the cerebral vessels to the hypercapnic stimulus was restored and the neurological state of the animals significantly improved by the end of the second week of cerebral hypoperfusion. The results show that the use of the JNK inhibitor can reduce cerebrovascular disorders and associated neurological disorders in hypoperfusion brain injury.

Russian Journal of Physiology. 2023;109(6):749-759
pages 749-759 views
Impakt of Ozone on the Oxyge Affinity Blood Properties and Prooxidant–Antioxidant Balance under Effect of HS-Generating System
Zinchuk V.V., Biletskaya E.S.

Hydrogen sulfide belongs to the group of signaling agents called gaseous transmitters and plays an important role in many physiological processes, in particular, in the realization of oxygen-dependent mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of hydrogen sulfide in the effect of ozone on the oxygen affinity blood properties and the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in vitro experiment. Ozone (6 mg/L concentration) and drugs that affect the synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (propargylglycine, sodium hydrosulfide and its combination with nitroglycerin) were used. The use of propargylglycine, an inhibitor of the synthesis of hydrogen sulfide, leads to a decrease in the effect of ozone on the blood oxygen transport function (decrease in PO2, SO2, P50real). When sodium hydrosulfide is added, the effect of this gas on these parameters does not increase, but in its combination with nitroglycerin, the effect of ozone on the blood oxygen transport function increases. Propargylglycine does not affect the prooxidant-antioxidant balance under the conditions of the experiment, and donors of hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen monoxide increase the activity of catalase. Propargylglycine under the action of ozone leads to a decrease in the level of nitrate/nitrite, and sodium hydrosulfide increases their concentration. The combination of sodium hydrosulfide and nitroglycerin leads to the accumulation of hydrogen sulfide in the blood plasma.

Russian Journal of Physiology. 2023;109(6):760-770
pages 760-770 views
Cardioprotective Effect of Soy Protein on a High-Salt Diet in Cynomolgus Monkeys
Kulikov A.N., Beresneva O.N., Ivanova G.T., Parastaeva M.M., Bogdanova E.O., Kayukov I.G., Kucher A.G., Orlov S.V.

Excessive salt intake is accompanied by the development of cardiovascular disorders, not always associated with an increase in blood pressure (BP). Given the cardioprotective effect of soy proteins in chronic kidney disease, the question arose of the possibility of leveling dietary interventions, in particular soy proteins, the damaging effect of a high-salt diet on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this work is to study the effect of long-term use of a diet high in NaCl and soy protein on myocardial remodeling and skin histomorphology in monkeys. The study was performed on male Javan macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The control group received a standard diet (2 g NaCl/kg feed). The second was a high-salt diet (8 g NaCl/kg feed), the third was a high-salt diet and SUPRO760 soy protein (200 g/kg feed). Echocardiography, registration of BP and heart rate were performed at baseline, after 4 and 12 months. After 12 months, a histological examination of the musculocutaneous flap was performed. In all animals, BP and heart rate did not change significantly during 12 months. In macaques on a high-salt diet, by the end of the study, deterioration in systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle (LV) was noted. In animals receiving additional soy protein, these changes leveled out. After 12 months, macaques fed soy protein had LV myocardial mass smaller and higher LV contractility than animals fed excess salt without soy protein. In monkeys on a high-salt diet, accumulation of collagen fibers in the hypodermis, hyalinization of the cytoplasm of capillary smooth muscle cells, perivascular and perineural edema of the reticular dermis were revealed. In animals treated with soy protein, skin capillary remodeling was less pronounced. Thus, high salt intake leads to adverse structural and functional disorders of the heart and blood vessels in cynomolgus monkeys, not associated with an increase in blood pressure. The inclusion of soy isolate in the diet reduces the negative effects of a high-salt diet on the cardiovascular system.

Russian Journal of Physiology. 2023;109(6):771-787
pages 771-787 views
The Influence of Hibernation on Electrical Activity and Potassium Currents in Myocardium of Long-Tailed Ground Squirrel
Filatova T.S., Abramochkin D.V.

Hibernating mammals are capable of reducing the temperature of their bodies down to 0°C. During this process, their heart is highly resistant to the occurrence of arrhythmias caused by temperature fall. In this research we have for the first-time studied potassium currents in the myocardium of a hibernating mammal on the example of long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus) and its change upon hibernation. Using patch clamp method, we studied transient outward current Ito and background inward rectifier current IK1 in isolated ventricular and atrial myocytes from summer (active) and winter (hibernating) ground squirrels. The study revealed, that at room temperature and at positive holding potentials peak amplitude of Ito in cardiomyocytes from hibernating group of animals is lower than that of the summer group. The downregulation of Ito upon hibernation was more pronounced in ventricular myocardium in comparison to that in atrial. Background inward rectifier current IK1 was enhanced in ventricular myocardium of winter group of animals, upon the adaptation to hibernation. In atrial myocardium there were no statistically significant differences of IK1 between the two groups. We also recorded action potentials in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes. The duration of action potentials at the levels of 50 and 90% repolarization did not differ between the groups, we also did not find significant differences in maximum upstroke velocity and in the level of resting membrane potential. Taken together, the revealed differences in the amplitude of Ito and IK1 between active and hibernating ground squirrels can serve as mechanisms increasing the duration of refractory period and to maintaining the level of resting membrane potential at low temperatures.

Russian Journal of Physiology. 2023;109(6):788-797
pages 788-797 views
Electric Epidural Stimulation of the Spinal Cord of the Decerebrated Rat
Shkorbatova P.Y., Lyakhovetskii V.A., Gorsky O.V., Pavlovaa N.V., Bazhenova E.Y., Kalinina D.S., Musienko P.E., Merkulyevaa N.S.

Decerebrated animals are often used in experimental neurophysiology to study multilevel physiological processes. The model of a decerebrated cat is traditionally used to study locomotion in acute experiments. We wondered if it would be possible to replace it with electrical epidural stimulation of the spinal cord with a decerebrated rat model. On an acute preparation of 16 Wistar rats decerebrated at the precollicular level, the tonic muscles activity, muscles evoked potentials and the possibility of inducing locomotion during electrical epidural stimulation of the spinal cord, were studied. Histological control of the level of decerebration was performed in 10 rats. Quadrupedal walking was induced in five animals, bipedal hindlimb walking – in one animal; the parameters of the evoked locomotion do not depend on the substantia nigra degree of damage. The tonic activity and the amplitude of the sensory component of the evoked potential of the hindlimb muscles (mm. tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis) depend on the rostrocaudal level of decerebration – they are higher when the substantia nigra is damaged. Thus, the model under consideration makes it possible to successfully study muscle tonic activity and evoked muscle potentials; however, the use of this model in the study of controlled locomotion requires additional research.

Russian Journal of Physiology. 2023;109(6):798-816
pages 798-816 views

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