Ophthalmology Journal

Medical peer-reviewed quarterly journal published since 2008.

Chief editor

professor Dmitriy V. Davydov, MD, Ph.D.
ORCID: 0000-0001-5506-6021 


Main publications of the journal are focused on key issues of modern ophthalmology: etiology and pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical picture features, up-to-date methods of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of eye diseases and of those of its adnexa.

The journal publishes original articles, scientific reviews, lectures, clinical case descriptions (presented by Russian and foreign authors), and informs about past congresses and conferences in Russia.

The journal is oriented toward practicing ophthalmologists, including ophthalmic surgeons, scientific and teaching staff of medical higher educational institutions, physicians in ophthalmology training, as well as for specialists of allied health specialties.

The journal’s mission:

  1. To integrate research results of Russian scientists and the rich clinical experience of practicing doctors in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of eye diseases into the international scientific space; to be an international scientific platform for discussions and sharing experiences;
  2. To provide for ophthalmologists of the Russian Federation actual and high quality research and practice insights into most up-to-date treatment and prevention methods of eye diseases and of those of its adnexa.


  • in English, Russian, Chinese 
  • in hybrid access (subscription and Open Access with СС BY license)
  • with no APC for all authors


  • RSCI (Web of Science)
  • eLibrary.ru
  • Google Scholar
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory
  • WorldCat
  • CNKI
  • Publons

The journal is registered by the Russian State Committee for Press and Mass Media on May 04, 2016 (Registration Number ПИ № ФС 77-65574).

Current Issue

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Vol 15, No 2 (2022)

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Original researches

Femtoassisted posterior lamellar keratoplasty in bullous keratopathy of stage IV–V (clinical application experience)
Tereshchenko A.V., Demyanchenko S.K., Trifanenkova Y.M., Golubeva Y.Y., Vishnyakova E.N.

BACKGROUND: Bullous keratopathy is a chronic edema of the cornea, accompanied by a significant visual acuity loss and pain. The cause of bullous keratopathy is a pathological irreversible decrease in the number of endothelial cells, in which the endothelial layer cannot perform its main barrier and pumping functions.

AIM: To evaluate the reproducibility and functional results of femto-assisted posterior lamellar keratoplasty using intraoperative OCT at the stage IV–V of bullous keratopathy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 23 eyes of 23 patients diagnosed with stage IV–V of bullous keratopathy. The mean age of patients was 69 ± 12 years, there were 14 male patients and 9 female patients. Before surgery, light perception with correct light projection was recorded in 15 cases, in 5 cases — the count of fingers at the face (0.005), in 3 cases visual acuity was 0.01. The central corneal thickness varied from 981 μm to 1960 μm and averaged 1008 ± 96 μm. Femto LDV Z8 femtosecond laser (Ziemer, Switzerland) was used to form an endothelial graft. All surgeries were performed using the Hi-R Neo 900 operating microscope with an integrated third-generation OCT module (Haag-Streit Surgical, Germany).

RESULTS: No intraoperative complications were noted. The presence of objective control in the form of intraoperative OCT made it possible in all cases to clearly differentiate stromal and endothelial surfaces of the posterior layered graft located in the anterior chamber of the eye. The postoperative course was standard for posterior lamellar keratoplasty, accompanied by resorption of corneal edema with restoration of its transparency. The normalization of corneal thickness was noted by 1 month after surgery, and the restoration of corneal optical properties was noted by 3–6 months and was accompanied by gradual increase in visual acuity. Corrected visual acuity by 1 month was 0.05 ± 0.03, by 3, 6, 12 months — 0.1 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.04, respectively. By 12 months after surgery, the central corneal thickness was 596 ± 42 μm, the thickness of the ultrathin graft tended to decrease somewhat to 67 ± 8 μm, the loss of endothelial cells was 59.3%. Endothelial graft survival was achieved in 82.6% of cases.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of intraoperative OCT allows expanding the indications for posterior lamellar keratoplasty in bullous keratopathy, including the stage IV–V of the disease.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):7-17
pages 7-17 views
Ciclosporin use for prevention of pterygium recurrence
Bochkareva A.N., Kolenko O.V., Egorov V.V., Smoliakova G.P., Banshchikov P.A.

BACKGROUND: Despite the development of new methods for treatment of pterygium, the frequency of its recurrence ranges from 5 to 89%.

AIM: Was to evaluate the effectiveness of ciclosporin for prevention of pterygium recurrence.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Under follow-up, there were 104 patients operated for pterygium, of which 26 had a high risk of recurrence, they were divided into 2 groups: the 1st group — 13 patients received 0.05% ciclosporin in addition to basic therapy; the 2nd group — 13 patients receiving only basic therapy. Patients of studied groups were under dynamic observation for 1 year.

RESULTS: After 3 months, all patients of the 1st group showed normalization of the osmolarity of the lacrimal fluid (OLF) and the ocular surface disease index (OSDI). In patients of the 2nd group, elevated values of OLF and OSDI remained characterizing the persistence of an inflammatory reaction signs and a high risk of the disease recurrence, as well as the formation of a hypertrophic scar in 38.5% of cases. In one year after surgery, 3 patients of group 2 had a recurrent pterygium, which required surgical retreatment.

CONCLUSIONS: We obtained results showing a positive effect of ciclosporin use on dynamics of inflammatory reactions of the ocular surface in postoperative period, which made it possible to prevent pterygium recurrence after its surgical treatment in patients with high risk of recurrence.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):19-26
pages 19-26 views
Correction of postkeratoplastic ametropia in patients with cataract
Sinitsyn M.V., Pozdeyeva N.A.

BACKGROUND: Penetrating keratoplasty leads, on the one hand, in 100% of cases, to the formation of induced astigmatism of variable degree, on the other hand, to a decrease in the density of endothelial cells of the corneal graft, which can reach from 19.1 to 38.3%. Thus, today the task of safe cataract extraction with minimal loss of density of endothelial cells and maximal correction of corneal astigmatism by the aid of an implantation of a toric intraocular lens is paramount.

AIM: The aim of the study is to conduct a clinical and functional analysis of cataract phacoemulsification with a toric intraocular lens implantation in patients after previously performed penetrating keratoplasty.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed phacoemulsification with implantation of a toric intraocular lens in 25 eyes (25 patients) having a history of penetrating keratoplasty. The 1st degree of the lens nucleus density (according to Buratto classification) was noted in 4 eyes, the 2nd degree — in 17 eyes, the 3rd degree — in 4 eyes. According to keratotopography, all patients had a symmetrical type of postkeratoplastic astigmatism. The average follow-up period was 1 year.

RESULTS: Intra- and postoperative complications were noted. One month after surgery, uncorrected visual acuity increased from an average of 1.3 ± 1.6 to 0.3 ± 0.9 LogMAR, best corrected visual acuity increased from 1.0 ± 1.18 to 0.1 ± 0.9 LogMAR, refractive astigmatism decreased from –7.5 ± 2.43 to –1.43 ± 0.38 D, and did not change during 1 year of follow-up. The density of endothelial cells decreased by 9% 1 year after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: Cataract phacoemulsification with a toric intraocular lens implantation in patients after previously performed penetrating keratoplasty allows achieving high refractive results. Preoperative analysis of endothelial cell density, careful approach to the intraocular lens calculation, and standard protocol of phacoemulsification make this operation predictable and safe.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):27-33
pages 27-33 views
Comparative evaluation of the results of phacoemulsification using domestic and foreign viscoelastics
Dzhaliashvili G.Z., Farikova E.E.

BACKGROUND: Phacoemulsification, being the safest technique, is the “golden standard” of cataract surgery worldwide. However, as any surgery, it is accompanied by inevitable damage to intraocular structures. The most prevalent among them is the loss of corneal endothelial cells. In order to prevent these complications, various viscoelastics with particular features and characteristics are widely used.

AIM: To compare the anatomical and functional state of ocular structures after standard phacoemulsification with monofocal posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation using domestic (Kogevisc and Adgevisc) and foreign (Viscoat and Amvisc Plus) viscoelastics.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 cataract patients (60 eyes) were included in the clinical study, which were divided into two equal groups. In the first group (30 patients, 30 eyes), Adgevisc and Kogevisc (Solofarm, Russia) were used during the procedure. The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 11 years. In the second group (30 patients, 30 eyes), Viscoat (Alcon) and Amvisc Plus (Bausch&Lomb) were used. The mean age of the patients was 69.03 ± 10.44 years. All patients underwent phacoemulsification with the implantation of the AcrySof IOL (model SA60AT, Alcon) according to the standard technique. Visual acuity, IOP level, CCT, corneal endothelial cell density were assessed. All studies were performed before surgery, the next day, 7 days and 1 month after surgery.

RESULTS: In patients of the second group, on the 1st (p ≤ 0.05) and 7th day (p ≤ 0.01) after surgery, a statistically significant increase in IOP was revealed compared to the first group. The central cornea thickness in the early postoperative period was higher in patients of the second group, however, it was not statistically significant. The loss of corneal endothelial cells 1 month after surgery was 8.5 ± 7.0% (p ≤ 0.01) in the first group and 6.6 ± 6.4% in the second group (p ≤ 0.01). The mean value of endothelial cell loss in patients of the first group was higher, however, it was not statistically significant. The best corrected visual acuity in both groups at all stages of follow-up after surgery (days 1, 7 and 30) was comparable, there was no significant difference between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The clinical efficacy of domestic adhesive and cohesive viscoelastics Adgevisc and Kogevisc (Solofarm, Russia) in phacoemulsification using the soft-shell technique is comparable to the foreign analogues Viscoat (Alcon) and Amvisc Plus (Bausch & Lomb), which is confirmed by the absence of statistically significant differences in the studied parameters of the postoperative state of ocular structures and explained by their similar composition, molecular weight and viscosity.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):35-42
pages 35-42 views
Ocular surface and the upper eyelid contour after surgical treatment of upper eyelid retraction in thyroid eye disease
Anikina L.K., Astakhov S.Y., Potemkin V.V., Babaeva S.E., Kostygina S.A.

BACKGROUND: Most of the thyroid eye disease (TED) patients have dry eye syndrome. Upper eyelid retraction (UER) is the most common TED symptom and one of dry eye causes. There are two groups of UER surgical treatment methods: transconjunctival and transcutaneous, which can influence on upper eyelid contour, tear film and ocular surface.

AIM: To evaluate the influence of different methods of UER surgery on upper eyelid contour and ocular surface.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 patients (19 eyes) were included in the study. Visual acuity test, measurements of UER and palpebral fissure height, Shirmer 1 test, LIPCOF-test and tear break-up time test, Meibomian gland dysfunction staging, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining and determination of the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were performed before surgery and 1 week, 1 and 3 months after. Patients were divided into two groups. Patients of group 1 had UER less than 4 mm and they underwent an upper tarsal muscle extirpation. Patients of group 2 had UER 4 mm and more and they underwent a recession of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle apouneurosis.

RESULTS: In all patients UER and the height of the palpebral fissure decreased 7 days after surgery and increased again after 3 months, and the dynamics of this change was more pronounced in group 2. There was one patient (both sides) with poor upper eyelid contour after surgery in both groups. BCVA and OSDI improved, while other parameters had a large scatter of data.

CONCLUSIONS: We have found that surgical treatment of UER caused by TED improves the contour of the eyelid, increases visual acuity and leads to a subjective improvement in the condition of the ocular surface.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):43-52
pages 43-52 views


Pathogenesis and treatment principles ocular damage by self-defense gas weapons
Kacherovich P.A., Kulikov A.N., Lapina N.V., Bespalov A.Y., Krasnov K.A., Kharitonova N.N., Troyanovskiy R.L.

The article presents the pathogenetic mechanisms of eye damage by gas self-defense weapons in detail. We discuss the mechanisms of eye damage and structural changes of the tissues after gas-trauma. The causes of these changes and the main clinical manifestations accompanying them are analyzed. We analyzed the factors, influencing the development of dystrophic changes of the ocular surface in detail. The information on various techniques for self-assistance, mutual aid and earlier specific treatment of this injury was summarized. An aqueous solution of pediphene substance promising for use is considered, which has a number of pharmacological properties that fundamentally affect the pathogenetic mechanisms of gas-weapon trauma. Its effectiveness was shown in the experiment in comparison with the control group without treatment and the group using the combined drug-dexamethasone in combination with an antibiotic.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):55-63
pages 55-63 views
Exposure of the retina to subthreshold micro- and nanosecond laser at early stages of age-related macular degeneration
Gavrilova N.A., Gadzhieva N.S., Subbota E.A.

At the moment, there are no effective methods of treatment for age-related macular degeneration at its early stages. The perspective of treatment for age-related macular degeneration may be a method using subthreshold laser radiation.

In the present review of literature, analysis is represented of using both subthreshold micro- and nanosecond laser radiation on the retina in intermediate AMD stage. Subthreshold diode micro-pulse laser exposure of the retina in AMD has proven to be a safe procedure that allows for the regression of macular drusen.

While some authors noted an improvement in visual functions and a decrease in the probability of developing choroidal neovascularization with such treatment, multicenter trials have not yet confirmed the effectiveness of micro-pulse therapy as a method to prevent the neovascular AMD development.

Subthreshold nanosecond laser impact on the retina is safe for the structures of the eye fundus, theoretically more selective stimulates the natural biological and regenerative potential in the pigment epithelium and neuroepithelium due to remodeling of extracellular matrix, restores the thickness of the Bruch’s membrane and metabolism between external retinal layers and choriocapillaris.

Encouraging results have been achieved from the use of nanopulse therapy as a method of preventing the development of advanced stage AMD in the absence of reticular pseudodrusen, however, it seems premature to recommend this technology for widespread clinical use - further research is needed.

The prospects of invading in wide clinical practice of subthreshold nanosecond laser impact on the intermediate stage of AMD on the basis of the obtained clinical research results are encouraging (regression of drusen, preventing of AMD progression in absence of reticular pseudodrusen), but there is currently no evidence base. It is required to conduct further researches.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):65-73
pages 65-73 views

Experimental trials

The creation of a corneal incision with a femtosecond laser
Nizametdinova Y.S., Takhtaev Y.V.

BACKGROUND: The cutting action of a femtosecond laser (FS-laser) on the corneal tissue is performed using a photodestructive effect. FS-laser technology is used in many different areas of corneal surgery, and studying this effect is an actual issue.

AIM: To evaluate the surface of the corneal incision created by a FS-laser (experimental study).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 porcine eyes were divided into two groups (FS-laser and keratome). The corneal tissue surface in the area of contact between two lips of the incision was visualized by electron microscopy.

RESULTS: In all cases, we received a full-thickness incisions through the cornea. Images obtained by electron microscopy showed regular surface, no signs of thermal or mechanical damage to the corneal structure.

CONCLUSIONS: The FS-laser is used as a microscopic scalpel in surgery. The precision cutting process is performed by mechanical forces generated by photodestruction by expanding cavitation bubbles.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):75-81
pages 75-81 views
Transplantation of the oral mucosa epithelial layer in the treatment of corneal defects with limbal stem cell deficiency
Сhentsova E.V., Borovkova N.V., Tselaya T.V., Storozheva M.V., Ponomarev I.N., Makarov M.S.

BACKGROUND: Corneal epithelialization occurs due to proliferation and differentiation of limbal stem epithelial cells. Death of these cells or damage of its microenvironment leads to limbal stem cell deficiency. In bilateral total limbal damage (both eyes), autologues limbal stem cells transplantation becomes impossible. So, it is revalent to find new sources of autologous progenitor cells. One of such sources are buccal cells from cheek mucosa.

AIM: To study the reparative effect of buccal cells in oral mucosa autologous epithelial layer in a mechanical limbal stem cell deficiency model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 7 Chinchilla rabbits (14 eyes). At the first stage, rabbits underwent bilateral total limbectomy and mechanical de-epithelialization of the cornea resulted in fibrovascular pannus development. Then, a full-layer flap of the cheek mucosa measuring 5 × 5 mm was taken, and epithelial layer was separated by 0.5% dispase solution. After superficial keratectomy to transparent layers, a layer of buccal epithelium was placed to the cornea and covered with a soft contact lens. In controls soft contact lens, was placed on the cornea. Temporary tarsorrhaphy was performed for 5 days. In the postoperative period, the area of the deepithelized surface, neovascularization and corneal transparency were evaluated.

RESULTS: On the 7th–30th day, a reduction of erosion was noted in experimental and control eyes, but the dynamics of recovery processes did not significantly differ. On day 60, the area of erosion in the experimental eyes was significantly less than in the control (p = 0.038). Recurrence of erosion was noted in 4 control and 3 experimental eyes.

CONCLUSIONS: In our model of limbal stem cell deficiency, the use of a buccal epithelium layer did not reveal a pronounced reparative effect.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):83-91
pages 83-91 views

Case reports

Peripapillary retinoschisis associated with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (clinical cases)
Doktorova T.A., Suetov A.A., Boiko E.V.

Peripapillary retinoschisis is a rare condition and is detected more often in patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects, while data on the pathophysiological mechanisms of development and the effect on the course of glaucoma are limited. The article presents two clinical cases of unilateral peripapillary retinoschisis detected accidentally during a routine examination of patients with glaucoma.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2022;15(2):93-102
pages 93-102 views

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