Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases

Peer-review medical journal

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About

Launch Year: 1996

The journal covers issues of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases.

Special attention is devoted to clinical analyses of diagnostically difficult cases, analysis of epidemics, new diagnostic and treatment methods, and epidemiological situation in Russia and the rest of the world. The journal publishes official documents issued by the Russian Ministry of Healthcare, Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, societies for infectiologists, epidemiologists, microbiologists and parasitologists as well as information on meetings, symposia, and conferences in Russia and the rest of the world.

The journal is aimed at a wide spectrum of researchers and practicing specialists focusing on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases: epidemiologists, infectiologists, microbiologists, primary care physicians, and family medicine specialists.

Indexation

  • Russian Science Citation Index (on WoS)
  • CrossRef
  • Google Scholar
  • Ulrich’s International Periodicals Directory
  • WorldCat

Types of accepted articles

  • plain reviews
  • systematic reviews and metaanalysis
  • results of original research (experimental, clinical, epidemiological
  • clinical cases and series of clinical cases
  • short communications
  • letters to the editor

Publications

  • regular issues bimonthly, 6 issues per year
  • articles — continuously online (Online First)
  • with NO APC (free of charge for all authors)
  • in Russian and English
  • in hybrid access mode — by subscription or in Open Access with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license  (authors are welcome for Optional Open Access (see more)

Current Issue

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Vol 28, No 4 (2023)

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Full Issue

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ORIGINAL STUDIES

Assessment of occupational risks of bloodborne infectious diseases for dental personnel
Agliullina S.T., Khasanova G.R., Ganieva A.I., Askarova E.R., Shakirova L.R., Bilalov I.R.
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Awareness of dental workers about the epidemiology of blood-borne infections (HIV, hepatitis B virus [HBV], and hepatitis C virus infections) and knowledge about actions to take if accidents occur in the workplace such as contact with blood and other biological fluids are a key link in the prevention of these infections.

AIMS: To assess awareness and adherence of dental personnel to the algorithm of postexposure prophylaxis of occupational infections with blood-borne pathogens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive crosssectional study enrolled the dental staff of public and private dental clinics in Kazan, Russia. A survey of 173 dental staff was conducted in February–March 2023. The rates of incidents caused by contact with blood and their nature among dental staff were determined, and the frequency of correctly performed algorithm of actions during an incident was calculated. The frequency of the implementation of measures for the prevention of occupational infections with blood-borne pathogens was estimated. Categorical data were described as absolute values and proportions (%).

RESULTS: In total, 65 specialists (37.6%) had encountered incidents such as contact with blood at the workplace. These incidents were significantly more common among women than among men: 44.7% (55/123) vs. 20.0% (10/50), respectively (p=0.002). The last incident in 50 respondents was associated with skin damage (needlestick injury or cut exposure); in 17 participants, their mucous membranes were exposed to blood (including two people with a mixed characteristic of incident: skin damage + exposure of their mucous membranes to blood). After contact with blood, local treatment was carried out correctly (according to Russian recommendations) in 18.0% of the participants with skin damage and 70.5% with blood exposure to mucous membranes. After the incident, 58.5% of the participants (38/65) reported to the head of the department or clinic, and a third of the respondents (23/65, 35.4%) recorded a case of contact with blood in the incident log. Nearly all respondents always use gloves (172/173, 99.4%) when they work in the dental office. Moreover, 64.2% of the respondents (111/173) always use safety glasses or screens. Nine respondents (9/173, 5.2%) do not use personal eye protection. Others (53/173, 30.6%) wear safety glasses/screens only when performing certain procedures. In addition, 85.0% (147/173) of the respondents have been vaccinated against HBV, 18 have not been vaccinated (10.4%), and 8 (4.6%) do not know their vaccination status.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study present the necessity of raising awareness among dental staff regarding the epidemiology and prevention of blood-borne infections to reduce the risk of occupational infections.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(4):199-208
pages 199-208 views
Features of the etiological structure of non-polio enterovirus infection in children in the pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods
Danshina E.A., Mironov A.Y., Kuyarov A.V., Kuyarov A.A., Suranova T.G.
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Regional features of the etiological structure of nonpolio enterovirus infection (NPEVI) in children in the pre- and post-pandemic periods must be registered.

AIM: To determine the features of the etiological structure of NPEVI in children in the pre- and post-pandemic periods in the Khanty–Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Statistical observation data for 2013–2022 and results of molecular genetic studies of the structure of NPEVI in children in the pre- and post-pandemic periods were analyzed.

RESULTS: The tendency of the incidence of NPEVI in the Khanty–Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug to increase in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic and a predominance of children aged <6 years has been established. In the study period up to 2019 (pre-pandemic), enteroviruses Coxsackie A6 in combination with E A71 were dominant, for which the calculated trends of the short-term forecast were confirmed in 2022. In the same year, these enteroviruses were the most common causes of focal diseases with exanthemic forms of NPEVI. In 2022, the circulation of eight more enteroviruses genovariants was recorded, among which Coxsackie A10 EV prevailed (20.5% of cases), which caused the majority of enterovirus vesicular pharyngitis cases. Enterovirus meningitis was registered in 5 (11.4%) children with the release of ECHO 6, ECHO 9, and Coxsackie A9, which were not noted in other clinical forms and circulated irregularly and in smaller numbers during the pre-pandemic period than in post-pandemic period (2022).

CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the monitoring data of the NPEVI in Khanty–Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug revealed a trend of a gradual increase in incidence in children, which must be considered when organizing epidemiological surveillance of NPEVI. The completeness of the registration of NPEVI cases with mandatory genotyping of the detected enterovirus strains will allow to more accurately determine the spectrum of strains endemic to this territory, assess the probability of their spread, forecast about the true level of morbidity, and conduct appropriate scientifically based antiepidemic and preventive measures among children with NPEVI in Khanty–Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(4):209-217
pages 209-217 views
Features of the profile of drug resistance to first-line and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Bulycheva E.V., Bulychev V.V., Velichko E.N., Pashkova N.A.
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Drug resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs directly affects the disease course. However, a high percentage of multidrug resistance in patients with HIV infection not only worsens the disease course but also forces the development of new strategies for managing such patients.

AIMS: To characterize drug resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in patients with HIV infection.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study recruited patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis by molecular genetic research methods and bacterial research methods in the Orenburg Regional Clinical Tuberculosis Dispensary.

RESULTS: For 2018–2022, the proportion of people with HIV infection who are resistant to isoniazid by 14.6%, rifampicin by 28.85%, moxifloxacin by 717.39%, and amikacin by 104.25% has increased. The reduction in the choice of drugs and possibility of effective anti-tuberculosis therapy in people with HIV infection are also complicated by the detection of a multidrug-resistant culture in 20.34% of the examined patients and multidrug resistance in 39.6%. In over 5 years, the percentage of gene mutations of mycobacteria responsible for resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs has increased.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate the need to search for new solutions and prevent resistance to existing anti-tuberculosis drugs and for the development of new drugs effective for use as first- and second-line drugs.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(4):218-229
pages 218-229 views

SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS

Management of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in adults: A review of national and regional guidelines and their adherence to World Health Organization guidelines
Tokmalaev A.K., Chentsov V.B., Emerole K.C., Kozhevnikova G.M., Baranova A.M., Vdovina E.T.
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and pathogenic malaria parasite associated with severe illness and death. In nonendemic countries like the Russian Federation, P. falciparum malaria is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disease found in travelers returning from countries with high malaria burden.

AIMS: This review aimed to analyze the recommendations for managing severe P. falciparum malaria in different World Health Organization (WHO) malaria-endemic regions and considered their adherence to WHO guidelines.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Countries with the highest number of indigenous P. falciparum malaria cases from four WHO regions were identified, and malaria treatment guidelines were searched using databases.

RESULTS: Intravenous administration of artesunate is the mainstay of treatment for severe P. falciparum malaria. Most guidelines lack a mechanism for referring patients with severe malaria, between different levels of health facilities, and lack specific criteria for intensive care unit admission.

CONCLUSIONS: Mefloquine, artemisinin, combination products containing mefloquine, should be used with caution in cerebral malaria because of neuropsychiatric and cognitive complications. Understanding how guidelines and recommendations for the clinical management of malaria are adopted in different epidemiological settings will help contextualize the value and validity of recommendations for the treatment of severe malaria.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(4):230-241
pages 230-241 views

TECHNICAL REPORTS

Disinfection and sterilization measures in medical organizations of the Ural and Siberian Federal Districts: Results of 2022 and a long-term quality rating
Smirnova S.S., Zhuikov N.N., Egorov I.A., Malkova E.V., Shelkova E.S., Stagilskaya Y.S.
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Disinfection and sterilization activities are integral parts of the epidemiological safety system in healthcare aimed at preventing healthcare-associated infections. The quality of disinfection and sterilization activities affects healthcare efficiency and the safety of both patients and healthcare professionals. Continuous monitoring of key disinfection and sterilization indicators is an important constituent of a healthcare-associated infection surveillance system implemented in healthcare institutions, organizations, and bodies of Rospotrebnadzor (Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing).

AIM: To analyze data on the disinfection and sterilization activities implemented in healthcare institutions of the Ural and Siberian Federal Districts.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on the information obtained from State Federal Statistical Monitoring form No. 27 “Information on disinfection activities” for 2015–2022 presented by the Rospotrebnadzor offices of the respective Russian Federation constituents, long-term average annual and Russia’s nationwide average figures were compared. The rating of the quality of disinfection and sterilization measures in the healthcare institutions of the Ural and Siberian Federal Districts was analyzed using Statistica 10, and the most significant groups of indicators were selected for analysis.

RESULTS: The resulting rating scores and their long-term annual kinetics suggest that the steadiest quality indicators of the disinfection and sterilization activities were observed in healthcare institutions in the Khakass Republic, Tyumen, and Omsk Oblasts.

CONCLUSIONS: Continuous monitoring of key disinfection and sterilization indicators in healthcare institutions allows the development of task-oriented preventive activities and their adjustment to changes in the epidemiologic situation in the region.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(4):242-262
pages 242-262 views

CASE REPORTS

Disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma in patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Bahteeva L.B., Sharaeva M.B., Khasanova G.R., Nagimova F.I.
Abstract

Kaposi’s sarcoma is the most common acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancy. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy into practice, the incidence of Kaposi’s sarcoma has declined significantly. However, cases associated with late diagnosis of HIV infection are still recorded. Herein, we present the clinical case of a patient with HIV infection and generalized Kaposi’s sarcoma with multiple lesions in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs. If the lesions in the skin and mucous membranes did not cause difficulties, distinguishing pulmonary lesions from disseminated tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus infection is difficult. Extremely severe Kaposi’s sarcoma with an unfavorable outcome is caused by severe immunosuppression and, apparently, an inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome. In autopsy, in addition to the skin and oral mucosal lesions, foci in the epiglottis, larynx, trachea, lungs, colon, duodenum, peribronchial, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and lumbar muscles were noted. Diagnosing internal organ involvement in Kaposi’s sarcoma is not easy and requires the involvement of specialists in various fields.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(4):263-270
pages 263-270 views


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