The journal was founded in 1961 as a multidisciplinary journal in the field of marine science. It is the leading journal in a wide range of theoretical and experimental directions in the sciences of the ocean.

The journal publishes original research results on physical oceanology, marine hydrochemistry, bio-oceanology and marine ecology, marine geology and geophysics, the role of the ocean in shaping the Earth's climate, information on new methods and technical means of ocean research, and information on scientific expeditions.

The journal is published 6 times a year in Russian and English languages. The name of the English version is Oceanology.

The journal is published under the guidance of the Department of Earth Sciences of the RAS.

The journal is presented in many databases, including the Web of Science, Scopus and RSCI.

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Vol 63, No 3 (2023)

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Физика моря

Features of Formation of the Lena Polynya on the Estuarine Coast of the Bykovsky Arm in the Summer
Minkovskaya R.Y.

Based on the results of the global oceanic reanalysis (GLORYS12.v.1), materials of hydrometeorological observations of the Roshydromet network in the Laptev Sea and the mouth of the Lena River, reviews of the ice processes in the Arctic Ocean by the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, this paper considers the features of the evolution of the Lena Polynya on the estuarine coast of the Bykovsky Arm in the warm period 1993–2019. The relationship between the timing of the formation of a polynya on the seashore of this arm with the dates of the beginning of the flood at the top of the Lena River delta has been revealed. The assumption is confirmed that the average growth rate of the Lena polynya in summer is determined by the timing of its formation – the earlier the flood begins, the earlier the polynya forms on the coast of the Bykovsky arm and the smaller the average rate its growth. It has been established that the process of warming in the mouth area of the Lena in 2008–2019 stabilized, as there are no significant trends in the characteristics of water and ice regimes. These regularities may be invariant for other mouths of the rivers of the Laptev Sea basin, and the obtained dependences can be used to improve the forecast of the dates of cleansing of the water area at the estuary seashore of the Lena from ice and planning icebreaking navigation along the route Tiksi port–Lena River.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):345-361
pages 345-361 views
Water Masses in the Western Part of the Chukchi Sea in August 2019 and Their Hydrochemical Features
Kodryan K.V., Kivva K.K., Zubarevich V.L., Pedchenko A.P.

The distribution of water masses in August 2019 in the Chukchi Sea, and their hydrochemical features are i-nvestigated using shipboard data from the transarctic expedition onboard the R/V Professor Levanidov. The work was carried out in the southern shallow part of the sea and in the northern part of the sea outside the 70-meter isobath. Six main water masses were identified: Alaskan and Anadyr Coastal Water (ACW), Siberian Coastal Water (SCW), Melt Water (MW), Summer Bering Sea Water (BSW), Remnant Pacific Winter Water (RWW) and Atlantic Water (AW). Their features are described and analyzed. It was revealed that the water masses of the Chukchi Sea are characterized by a high spatial variability of hydrochemical parameters, especially the BSW, RWW and AW. In the southern part of the Chukchi Sea the presence of very high values of ammonium nitrogen in the bottom layer was noted (up to 12.6 µM). In august 2019, transformed AW, typically residing below 150 m, were observed at a depth of 117–137 meters, characterized by salinity values from 34.2 to 35.7, high content of mineral silicon (93–97 µM), low elevated values of apparent oxygen utilization (240–270 µM), and unusually low N* (a measure of the fixed nitrogen excess relative to phosphorus) values (down to −24.0 µM). At the same time, the AW observed at depths below 140 m did not have such hydrochemical features.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):362-374
pages 362-374 views

Химия моря

New Estimate of the Supply of Dissolved Organic Carbon with the Waters of the Ob and Yenisei to the Kara Sea Basin
Fedulov V.Y., Belyaev N.A., Gordeev V.V., Romankevich E.A.

Calculations were made of the runoff of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the Kara Sea with the waters of the Ob and Yenisei rivers. The estimates performed showed that the DOC runoff with the Yenisei waters (3.67 × 106 tC/year) is less than the DOC runoff with the Ob waters (4.06 × 106 tC/year), which is due to differences in the structure of the drainage basins and estuaries of these rivers. All previous published estimates show the opposite. The lack of the DOC content data during the maximum flood of the Yenisei does not let us calculate accurately the DOC runoff with its waters, but makes it possible to estimate its maximum and minimum values (3.11–4.18 × 106 tC/year).

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):375-381
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Thiosulfate in the Upper Part of the Black Sea Anoxic Water Column
Dubinin A.V., Rimskaya-Korsakova M.N., Ocherednik O.A., Pakhomova S.V.

Thiosulfate is a sulfur compound in an intermediate oxidation state between sulfate and sulfide. It emerges during processes of sulfide oxidation in bacterial and chemical reactions. Thiosulfate plays a prominent role in oxidation of sulfide and its presence may clear the mechanism of redox reactions in the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon. This work presents the distribution of thiosulfate, determined by derivatization technique with reagent 2,2'-Dithiobis(5-nitropyridine), in the upper part of the Black Sea anoxic water column in 2018–2021. Observations were carried out annually at the station located seaward of Gelendzhik in the area of continental slope. Independently of observation time the concentration of thiosulfate rises depth wards simultaneously with increase of sulfide. The thiosulfate concentration above limit of detection 0.01 µM are found at water depth with density (σθ) of 16.3 kg/m3 and sulfide concentration of 8–11 µM. Thiosulfate reaches its maximum values of 0.30 µM at maximal studied depth of 600 m. We suggest that in the absence of oxidants in the anoxic waters the thiosulfate appearance is attributed to the process of sulfate reduction in reductive part of sulfur cycle. The thiosulfate disappears in the upper part of anoxic water column before the sulfide.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):382-391
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Hydrocarbons at the Water-Atmosphere Border in the Barents and Kara Sea
Nemirovskaya I.A., Khramtsova A.V.

The concentrations and composition of hydrocarbons (HCs), aliphatic (AHCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Barents and Kara Seas were determined in the surface microlayer (SML, 300 µm thick), melting ice, and surface waters. Field material was collected in 80 and 83 cruises of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in August 2020 and June 2021, respectively. In SML, HCs occur primarily in suspension. In the Barents Sea, the AHCs content in suspension was lower (31–96, 68 µg/l on average) compared with the Kara Sea (187–1051, 693 µg/L on average), where examination was carried out in the early summer season. In the Kara Sea, the AHCs concentrations in the SML were 3.6 times higher than in the dissolved form (89–270, 158 μg/L on average), while compared to the suspension of surface waters, they were almost 15 times higher. The accumulation of organic compounds also occurs in ice, but to a lesser extent than in SML. From the alkanes composition, the influence of autochthonous processes on HCs generation in melting ice is insignificant. The PAHs contents in suspension were also 4.8 times higher on average than in the dissolved form. An influence of combustion products of ship fuel on the composition of PAHs was traced by markers, which showed that in addition to phenanthrene, in all samples fluoranthene and pyrene dominated.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):392-404
pages 392-404 views


Bioindication of Bottom Sediments of the Gulf of Finland by the Composition of Meiobenthos in Combination with Biotesting and Chemical Analysis
Berezina N.A., Petukhov V.A.

The question of the possibility of using meiobenthos to monitor the state of bottom sediments (BS) in the Baltic Sea, where bottom macrofauna are unstable due to hypoxia, is of interest. The parameters of meiobenthos and the physicochemical characteristics of BS and bottom water were studied, and the toxicity of BS was determined by the survival of the amphipod Gmelinoides fasciatus in 10-day tests for 11 stations in the brackish part of the Gulf of Finland (depths of 10–52 m). Principal component analysis revealed two factors explaining 67% of the variability of the variables, and groups of stations similar in terms of conditions. Factor 1 combined nine related variables (depth, metal concentrations and fraction of sand in BS, ratio of nematodes and copepods (N/C index) and survival of amphipods), and factor 2 combined four variables (organic matter and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in BS, phosphates in water and the number of meiobenthos). Thus, bioindication of the environment by meiobenthos is promising, but requires an integrated approach to be applied in monitoring.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):405-417
pages 405-417 views
The Distribution of Deep-water Scleractinean Corals in the Indian Ocean and Its Similarities and Differences with that Found in the Pacific Ocean
Keller N.B., Oskina N.S., Olshanetskiy D.M., Zarajka J.A.

The aim of this article is to clarify the particular distribution of deep-water Indian Ocean colonies of scleractinean corals with respect to the location of the belts of the global oceanic conveyer. This study is based on the author’s own and others’ publications on the fauna of Indian Ocean corals, and ranks the stations where these organisms have been found by depth. It has been determined that a maximum of finds was obtained at a depth of 1–2 km, with the amount declining sharply at lower depths, and that the amount increases once more at a depth of 4–5 km. However, at the lower depths scelactinean corals are represented by just 3 species belonging to 2 genera. An asymmetry in spatial distribution Scleractinian in the depth more then 3 km was established, with a far greater number of stations in the western part of the ocean than in the east. This phenomenon is likely linked to the idiosyncracies of the circulation of both contemporary and neogen water. A comparison of the fauna of the Indian Ocean’s scleractinian corals of the depths 1–2 km with those of the Pacific, which have already been studied, shows that the Pacific features the most species quantity, with 109 species, while that of the Indian Oceans is with 18 species, respectively.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):418-425
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Verification of the Daily Periodicity of Microincrements Formation on the Otoliths of the Juvenilrs of the Ocellated Blenny (Stichaeidae) for a Retrospective Evaluation of the Period of Mass Hatching under the Conditions of Peter the Great Bay of the Japan Sea
Shelekhov V.A.

Experiments were carried out on intravital otolith-tagging of juveniles of the ocellated blenny after transition to benthic life mode with Alizarin Red S. Marking at a dye concentration of 200 mg/L for 16–18 h at night, gave 100% formation of fluorescent marks with zero mortality of experimental individuals. Alizarin marks on the otoliths correspond to “stress” marks in the form of darker micro-increments, visible in transmitted light. The calculation of microincrements in the zone between two consecutive markings with an interval of 9 days confirmed the daily periodicity of their laying at this stage of development of the ocellated blenny. This allowed us to determine the period of hatching in natural conditions of juveniles in the Zhitkov Bay (Russky Island, the Peter the Great Bay, Japan sea). Hatching of larvae in 2017 in this species occurred, according to our estimates, from the last decade of March to the end of the second decade of April, with a peak in the first decade of April. Hatching begins even under the ice at a slightly negative water temperature of –1–0°C, but it proceeds mainly already at a temperature of 1–3°C, after the removal of ice from the bay. Taking into account the known timing of spawning of the ocellated blenny in the Peter the Great Bay (November–early December), we can state that the development of its eggs in this area is greatly slowed down at water temperatures below zero in December–March and can go on for 4–5 months, which is almost 3 times longer than the development time in more mild conditions of the south Hokkaido.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):426-435
pages 426-435 views
The Lipid Profile of the Tissues of the Gray Whale (): to the Relationship of Composition of Lipids and Their Physiological and Biochemical Role in Maintaining Tissue Function
Mamaev M.S., Murzina S.A., Voronin V.P., Litovka D.I., Rozhnov V.V.

A study was made of the composition of lipids in different tissues of gray whales Eschrichtius robustus, and the lipid profiles of tissues with different functional loads were compared. Five types of tissues (skin, muscle, liver, outer and inner layers of fat) were collected from seventeen individuals of eastern gray whales during the permitted aboriginal fishing in the village. Lorino of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in the summer of 2020. For all of the listed tissues, the composition of total lipids and their individual lipid classes was studied by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), the identification and description of lipid profiles of different types of tissues was carried out, which made it possible to identify their general and specific features of lipid metabolism according to the studied parameters. Comparative analysis of lipid profiles of tissues revealed individual lipid classes that make the greatest contribution to discrimination between different tissues. Both the content of total lipids and individual lipid classes varied significantly in different tissues. At the same time, 93% of the differences between tissues are two functions that are most closely related to the content of metabolically associated diacylglycerols (DAG), monoacylglycerols (MAG), triacylglycerols (TAG) and waxes, mainly energetic lipids, in tissues. The paper discusses the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative composition of lipids and the functional load and the physiological role of tissues. The metabolic features of the accumulation and consumption of lipid classes during the feeding period were noted. The revealed differences in certain parameters of lipid metabolism of the outer and inner layers of fat are due to different metabolic activity of tissues and their function in the body, which, among other things, is provided by lipids.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):436-446
pages 436-446 views

Морская геология

Complexes of Marginal Sea Paleobasins of the Olyutorka–Kamchatka Region (Structure, Composition and Geodynamics)
Tsukanov N.V., Fedorov P.I.

The structural features of the Olyutorsko-Kamchatka accretion region allow us to reconstruct two paleobasins for the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene time, separated and fenced off from the ocean by volcanic arcs. The features of the structure and composition of the complexes characterizing the fragments of the oceanic crust show that these basins had a different nature. The age of the fragments of the crust of the Lesnovsko-Iruneisky basin are Alb–Maastrichtian.Volcanites are represented by differentiated toleites of the N-MORB type, rarely intraplate basalts and enriched toleites of E-MORB. Fragments of the crust of the Vetlovsky basin are of age from the Campan–Maastrichtian to the Middle Eocene. Among the volcanites, basalts of N‑MORB are mainly developed, less often E-MORB and, in some structures, basalts of oceanic islands (OIB). Geodynamics in the Late Cretaceous–Cenozoic time for the Kamchatka and Olyutorsky segments differed, starting from the Campanian time.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):447-466
pages 447-466 views
On the Mechanisms Generating the Nearshore Bars on a Sandy Coastal Slope
Leont’yev I.O.

The study is aimed at investigation of the problem in what conditions the morphodynamic self-organizational mechanism controlling the growth of small perturbations arisen on bed could be responsible for the nearshore bars development. A simplified sediment transport model is used in which the sediment discharge is turned out directly proportional to the local bed slope. This model allows reducing the problem to an analytical solving of the diffusion equation which gives the base to predict the evolution of perturbation arisen on bed. The conclusion is argued that the favorable preconditions for the nearshore bar formation can exist in the case of onshore sediment transport associated with the dominating contribution of wave asymmetry in transport process. However under conditions of steep stormy waves the undertow is developed providing offshore sediment flux from the beach. In this case, the breaker bar is formed by two mechanisms–self-organization and convergence of opposite sediment fluxes. The results obtained are in agreement with available data and also assist to explain some properties of multiple-bar systems found out from observations.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):467-474
pages 467-474 views
Formation of Gas Accumulation on the East African Continental Margins
Zabanbark A., Konyuhov A.I., Lobkovsky L.I.

At present the continental margin of the South-East Africa is in the process of actives search prospecting. However on like of the West African continental margins, where throughout its entire length discovered mainly liquid hydrocarbons, in researching region known on the whole only gas accumulations. The reason for this is most likely the Karoo complex formation dating at early Permian, which is widespread at the East African basins. Enormous reserves of coal contained in the section of the Karoo formation in different basins (basin Karoo in SAR). Complex Karoo extending from south-west to north-east and little by little reduced not only by thickness, but in the content of coal reserve in it. The regions where the complex reduced at the north – east of the South- East Africa, appeared oil accumulation, like as in Lamu basin (Kenia), Somali and etc. Large gas reserves are discovered at the continental margin of the South-East Africa in Rovuma basin, North Mozambique and South Tanzania. This basin is nearest neighbor just the Karoo basin. Today Mozambique becomes a gas State in the Indian Ocean.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):475-481
pages 475-481 views
Physical Modelling of the Formation of the Meteor and Islas Orcadas Rises (South Atlantic)
Dubinin E.P., Chupakhina A.I., Grokholsky A.L.

The kinematic reorganization of the plate boundaries in the southeastern part of the Antarctic part of the South Atlantic, which expressed in the jump of the spreading axis of the Agulhas Ridge, has led to a restructuring of the structural plan of the region. This process resulted in the formation of the southern segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), the extinction of the previously active Agulhas spreading ridge, and the formation of the Meteor and Islas Orcadas rises, marking the location of the MAR and located symmetrically about its axis. Based on the research results, the conditions for jumping the spreading axis were identified and an experimental model was constructed for the formation of accompanying structures, in which an important role was played by the accretion of the oceanic crust on the Agulhas Ridge and the westward migration of the Falkland Plateau. This resulted in the southward movement of the southern segment of the MAR, the formation of the Malvinas microplate, and a jump in the axis of the Agulhas spreading ridge, which led to the cessation of spreading on this ridge. An important role in the process of this kinematic restructuring was played by the activity of the Sean hotspot.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):482-491
pages 482-491 views


89th Cruise (1st Stage) of the Research Vessel : Climate Experiment in Interaction with the Flying Laboratory
Kravchishina M.D., Klyuvitkin A.A., Novigatsky A.N., Glukhovets D.I., Shevchenko V.P., Belan B.D.

A unique climate experiment was carried out to study the composition of the air and the characteristics of the underlying surface in the Russian sector of the Arctic and Siberia. Synchronized research onboard the RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh and the unique scientific facility (USF) flying laboratory Tu-134 Optik were carried out in the South Kara Sea. Validation of airborne and satellite algorithms for calculating the characteristics of the sea surface layer was carried out in the cruise. For the first time on the Arctic shelf, data were obtained on the concentration of methane in the natural system of troposphere–atmospheric surface layer–water column–bottom sediments. The fluxes of greenhouse gases were simultaneously estimated from the shelf area and adjacent land. A related research of the conditions and processes of recent and ancient sedimentation was carried out in the South Kara Sedimentary Basin, where huge hydrocarbon (HC) reserves are localized.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):492-495
pages 492-495 views
Study of Marginal Filter of Mesotidal Estuary of Indiga River (Barents Sea Basin)
Miskevich I.V., Kotova E.I., Moseev D.S.

The article provides brief information on the study of the features of the marginal filter of the mesopotential estuary of the Indiga River in the Barents Sea in the summer low water of 2022.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):496-498
pages 496-498 views
Study of State and Variability of the Japan and Okhotsk Seas in the 77th Cruise of the R/V and 97th Cruise of the R/V
Lobanov V.B., Sergeev A.F., Goryachev V.A., Tishchenko P.P., Tsoy V., Barabanshchikov Y.A., Kalyuzhniy D.S., Krasikov V.A., Kukla S.P., Kushnir P.G., Legkodimov A.A., Leusov A.E., Lukyanova N.B., Makseev D.S., Maryina E.N., Prushkovskaya I.A., Rudykh Y.N., Sagalaev S.G., Semkin P.Y., Sokolov D.D., Ulanova O.A., Shvetsova M.G., Shkirnikova E.M., Shcherbakova K.P., Yurtsev A.Y.

Investigation of interannual and short-term variability of the water parameters in the Japan and Okhotsk seas and their ecological state were continued in the cruises No. 77 of the R/V Professor Gagarinskiy and No. 97 of the R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev in fall-winter season of 2021. CTD profiling and water sampling for chemical analyses including methane and radioisotopes were implemented. A mooring of bottom autonomous station was deployed for 2.5 month. The long-term trend of the bottom water warming, eutrophication and acidification of the Japan Sea have been confirmed. The features of the fall-winter restructuring of the field of currents of the northern part of the Sea of Japan, the multifrontality of the Sakhalin upwelling structure, and the bimodality of the Primorye Current are shown.

Okeanologiâ. 2023;63(3):499-502
pages 499-502 views


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