Radiation biology. Radioecology

The journal publishes the results of studies of changes caused by the action of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in biomatter at all levels of its organization, from the molecular to the ecosystem level: radiation chemistry of biomolecules and biophysics of radiobiological processes; molecular and cellular radiobiology; radiation genetics and cytogenetics; radiation biochemistry, pathophysiology, hematology and pathomorphology of exposed animals and humans; clinical radiobiology; radioprotectors and other anti-radiation agents; radionuclide toxicology, radiation epidemiology. The journal also publishes research materials on the migration of radionuclides in the biosphere and its components: terrestrial ecosystems, soil, vegetation and animals, hydrosphere and hydrobionts

We publish reviews on current problems of radiobiology, radioecology, and related disciplines, reviews of new books, and a scientific chronicle.

The Journal has been established in 1961.

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Vol 63, No 1 (2023)

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Excess Relative Risk of Mortality from Diseases of the Circulation System after Irradiation. Report 1. Overview of Reviews and Meta-analysis Declared Effects of Low Doses
Koterov A.N., Ushenkova L.N., Wainson A.A., Dibirgadzhiev I.G., Biryukov A.P.

A review of two reports is devoted to the problem of the significance of excess relative risks (ERR) per 1 Gy/Sv for mortality from diseases of the circulatory system for various exposed groups from the standpoint of epidemiology and in terms of the effects of low doses of radiation. Report 1 provides an overview of reviews and meta-analyses, together with key studies, on this topic. In most sources, 2005–2021 (publications by M.P. Little with co-workers, and others) reveals an ideological bias towards the effects of low doses of radiation (noted in the titles or summaries of almost all papers), and often there was a lack of understanding about the upper limit of this range accepted by international organizations for low LET radiation (up to 0.1 Gy according to UNSCEAR, ICRP, BEIR, etc.). In selected M.P. Little and co-authors sources for reviews and meta-analyses observed both absurd ERR values per 1 Gy and incorrect recalculations of the risk estimated in the originals at 0.1 Gy. Examples of the incorrectness of such estimations are presented, since ERR per 1 Gy calculated for ranges of lower doses may differ from those for high dose ranges by many times, and this is a systemic phenomenon, despite all the declarations of a linear non-threshold concept. Selection of sources for meta-analyses used by M.P. Little and other authors (2010–2020) violates the principles of homogeneity (groups with radiotherapy (including children with tinea capitis) are combined with miners, liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, etc.), representing an illustration of a meme of critics of meta-analytical approaches (“combination of apples and oranges”). The values of ERR per 1 Gy obtained as a result of meta-analyses for diseases of the circulatory system in general and for their individual types according to epidemiological risk scales (R.R. Monson scale, 1980; 1990) are either insignificant (ERR = 0–0.2), or, rarely, located on the border of weak associations (ERR = 0.2–0.5). An analysis of data from reviews and meta-analyses on the topic did not reveal sources that investigated effects limited to low dose ranges. In almost all cases, with some exceptions (miners with radon exposure, cohorts with absurd risks, etc.), the upper limit of the range for groups in the samples was either medium (0.1–1 Gy) or high (>1 Gy). ) doses. An analysis of almost all publications on the topic of Mayak employees (T.V. Azizova with co-workers; 2010–2018; 31 sources) showed a lack of risk studies for groups with low doses of external exposure (up to 0.1 Gy), with the exception of works from 2014 and 2018, in which either reverse or weak effects were established in the absence of dose dependence. Thus, no samples in reviews and meta-analyses, as well as data for Mayak PA, provide material on the correspon-ding effect of low doses, despite the prevailing general idea of its “proof”. It was concluded that one should adhere to the statement of international organizations (USCEAR, ICRP, NCRP, BEIR, etc.) that the threshold for increasing mortality from diseases of the circulatory system is not less than 0.5 Gy, and then raise the issue of their radiation attribution for low doses impractical.

Radiation biology. Radioecology. 2023;63(1):3-33
pages 3-33 views


Calculation of Radiation-induced DNA Damage Efficiency. Analysis of Uncertainties
Eidelman Y.A., Salnikov I.V., Andreev S.G.

Computer simulations of the DNA damage are widely used due to their large application area. The computational methods to predict DNA breaks are based on molecular concepts about the formation of breaks, the geometric structure of DNA, as well as information about the distribution of absorbed energy in a DNA mo-lecule. Since the calculations use different postulates and algorithms, it is often difficult to make intercompa-rison between theoretical results in the literature. Due to the spread of experimental data on DNA breaks, the determination of parameters of DNA lesion models from the data is not straightforward. In this paper, a comparative analysis of two basic models of DNA structure, molecular and enlarged subvolume, various schemes for the formation of single- and double-strand DNA breaks, as well as different classifications of the break complexity after irradiation with protons and α-particles is performed. Numerical results on initial radiation-induced DNA damage due to direct and quasi-direct action demonstrate the dependence on variation of model parameters. The parameter values where the two models agree or differ are discussed.

Radiation biology. Radioecology. 2023;63(1):34-46
pages 34-46 views
Experimental and Mathematical Modeling of Borderline Changes in the Brain under Radiation Exposure
Fedorov V.P., Ushakov I.B.

In model experiments on rats irradiated in doses and exposure regimes comparable to those in the liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, changes in neurons of various parts of the brain were studied depending on the dose of Y-irradiation and the dose rate of exposure. It was established that throughout the experiment, both in control and irradiated animals, undulating changes were observed in various neuromorphological parameters of nerve cells with stochastic extrema in separate dose-time intervals. In a number of cases, the changes were of a borderline nature, when they were no longer the norm and at the same time were not yet a pathology. Although the level of significance of such changes fluctuated in relation to the age control within functionally insignificant limits, their presence testified to the instability of the structural and functional organization of nerve cells and the intensity of functioning. At the same time, γ- irradiation had a grea-ter influence on the change in most indicators of the state of neurons than the time of the recovery period, which indicated a rather high response of nerve cells to radiation exposure. Over time, changes in nerve cells were repaired and their parameters corresponded to the age control. It should be assumed that with an increase in the dose or dose rate of radiation exposure, as well as against the background of other harmful and dangerous factors associated with radiation accidents, changes in neurons will become more unidirectional.

Radiation biology. Radioecology. 2023;63(1):47-59
pages 47-59 views


Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Control Genes and the Risk of Cancer Development in Chronically Exposed Persons
Blinova E.A., Yanishevskaya M.A., Korechenkova A.V., Akleyev A.

The objective of the paper was to study the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes involved in the cell cycle control (ATM rs664677, MDM2 rs2279744, CDKN1A rs1801270) and apoptosis (BCL-2 rs2279115, BAX rs4645878, TNFα rs361525) and the risk of solid cancer development in persons of different ethnicity exposed to chronic radiation. The study included 915 residents of the Techa riverside settlements belonging to two ethnic groups (Slavs and Turks) who were affected by chronic low dose rate exposure in the low to and medium dose range. 310 persons out of them had solid cancers. Genotyping of polymorphic regions of genes regulating cell cycle and apoptosis was performed by real-time PCR method. The study showed that the rs2279744*C allele of the MDM2 gene was associated with an increased risk of cancer development (OR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.23–4.28; p = 0.007), while the rs1801270*A allele of the CDKN1A gene showed a protective effect against cancer development (OR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.35–0.85; p = 0.01) in exposed individuals of the Turkic ethnic group. The combined effect of the identified polymorphisms and soft tissue exposure dose statistically significantly modifies the risk of cancer development in chronically exposed persons of the Turkic ethnic group, with the greatest contribution being made by the carriage of the rs2279744*C allele of the MDM2 gene.

Radiation biology. Radioecology. 2023;63(1):60-70
pages 60-70 views


High Thermosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 Cells as a Prerequisite for Thermoradiosensitization of Triple-negative Breast Cancer in Clinical Practice
Yakimova A.O., Kabakov A.E.

The work is dedicated to the analysis of thermal sensitivity and efficiency of thermosensitization to γ-radiation of three cell lines of breast cancer of different molecular subtypes. It has been established that the cells of the studied lines differ in the sensitivity to hyperthermia and, as a result, in the effectiveness of thermoradiosensitization, which raises the question of finding criteria for assessing the rationale of using hyperthermia in each specific case. It has been shown that the level of heat-responsive expression of HSP70 gene and also the level of cell genomic instability can serve as such criteria. It was found that the efficiency of thermoradiosensitization is significantly higher in MDA-MB-231 cells compared to the cells of other studied lines. The data obtained suggest that the use of hyperthermia as a radiotherapy-sensitizing co-treatment may be particularly promising toward triple negative breast cancer.

Radiation biology. Radioecology. 2023;63(1):71-79
pages 71-79 views


Stimulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proliferation from the Femur of Wistar Rats by Nanosecond Microwave Radiation: Dependence on the Number of Pulses
Gostyuhina А.А., Bolshakov М.А., Samoylova А.V., Doroshenko O.S., Svetlik M.V., Kutenkov О., Zaitsev K.V., Rostov V.V.

The effect of nanosecond repetitively pulsed microwave radiation (RPM, 50–4000 pulses, pulse repetition rate of 13 Hz, peak power flux density of 140 W/cm2, carrier frequency of 10 GHz) on the stimulation of me-senchymal stem cells (MSC) proliferation was studied. The effect of exposure was assessed by the change in the number of cells in the culture after a single irradiation with a different number of pulses. The most pronounced effect exerted by the impact with 100 and 50 pulses, and the effect is realized with a maximum speed after 24 hours.

Radiation biology. Radioecology. 2023;63(1):80-86
pages 80-86 views


Thorium Concentrations in Terrestrial and Freshwater Organisms: A Review of the World Data
Fesenko S.V., Emlyutina E.S.

An overview of data on thorium concentrations in terrestrial animals, as well as freshwater organisms is presented. Concentrations of 232Th in both animals and fish vary widely, reflecting environmental thorium concentrations. Thorium concentrations in the regions with a normal thorium background in animal tissues were in a range from 0.9 × 10–4 to 2.1 × 10–2 Bq/kg, and from 3.1 × 10–2 to 1.4 × 10–1 Bq/ kg in the areas with high thorium concentrations in the soil. Significantly higher values were observed in wild animals’ tissues. The highest 232Th concentrations were found to be in the skeleton, followed by lungs, kidneys, liver and finally muscles. It has been shown that thorium accumulation is higher in species occupying a higher position in the trophic chains. In areas with normal thorium background, the concentration of 232Th in fish can reach 1.0 × 10–1 Bq/kg (fresh mass), and in areas of high thorium background this value can be up to 100 times higher. The obtained results show the importance of study on the thorium transfer along the food chains and the need to consider observed regularities when assessing the consequences of radioactive contamination of the environment.

Radiation biology. Radioecology. 2023;63(1):87-100
pages 87-100 views


Tritium in the Water System of the Pyshma River Floodplain
Chebotina M.Y.

The paper presents data on the concentration of tritium in the water of the river Pyshma, which is under the influence of the Beloyarsk NPP named after Kurchatov, and drinking water of settlements located in the coastal zone of the river. It was found that the content of radionuclide in the water of the river at a distance of up to 400 km below the dam of the Beloyarsk reservoir varies within 13–26 Bq/l and significantly decreases along the course of the river. In the coastal part of the river, above-background tritium pollution enters the drinking water of wells and chinks. It is shown that in water samples from wells, the tritium concentration significantly decreases with increasing depth and distance from the dam of the Beloyarsk reservoir; in the water of private wells, such a relationship was not reliably recorded. The concentration levels of tritium in the spring water of 7 settlements located along the Pyshma river at different distances from the dam of the Beloyarsk re-servoir, almost 2 times higher than in the water of deep chinks, have similar values and do not depend on the distance.

Radiation biology. Radioecology. 2023;63(1):101-107
pages 101-107 views


Comparative Estimate of Plutonium and Radiocesium in Muscle of Grayling () of the Yenisei River
Zotina T.A., Melgunov M.S., Dementyev D.V., Alexandrova Y.V.

The paper presents the data on the content of plutonium (239,240Pu) in the muscles of the Baikal grayling Thymallus baicalensis, inhabiting the middle reaches of the Yenisei River in the vicinity of the radioactive discharge point of the Mining and Chemical Combine, in 2011–2019. The content of 239,240Pu in grayling muscles varied within 7–32 mBq/kg dry weight. Highest value was recorded in 2019, a year after the increase in the volume of controlled plutonium discharges. The ratio of activity concentrations 239,240Pu/137Cs in grayling muscles compared to the similar ratio in other hydrobionts of the Yenisei indicates a lower bioavailability of plutonium for fish.

Radiation biology. Radioecology. 2023;63(1):108-110
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